DISCIPLINE AND PIETY

tompoad
Mind Map by tompoad, updated more than 1 year ago
tompoad
Created by tompoad about 8 years ago
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Description

Calvinism Mind Map on DISCIPLINE AND PIETY, created by tompoad on 05/09/2013.

Resource summary

DISCIPLINE AND PIETY
1 CALVIN'S TEACHINGS
1.1 Ecclesiastical Ordinances 1541
1.1.1 Democratic election of elders

Annotations:

  • 2 from Narrow Council, 4 from Council of Sixty, and 6 from Council of Two-Hundred
  • Men who are fearful of God and have good spiritual discretion
1.1.2 Consistory to meet every Thursday
1.1.3 Discipline and Punishment from the Holy Word of God
1.1.4 Discipline in the educationary message of the Gospel

Annotations:

  • People living uprightly will influence others to do the same
1.1.4.1 Attending sermons not enough

Annotations:

  • Must understand and follow the Scripture in their entirety - interpreting the message with the preacher
1.1.4.2 Vernacular understanding emphasised
1.1.5 Disciplined approach to Scripture

Annotations:

  • One belief and limitations of personal interpretation of Christian belief argued by the Consistory
1.2 1537 Articles
1.2.1 Outlined the organisation of the Church
1.2.2 Expectations of individuals

Annotations:

  • Persons of upright life, and needing to master sacramental knowledge
1.3 Fourfold Ministry
1.3.1 Pastors

Annotations:

  • Proclaim the Word of God and to administer the sacraments as well as admonish, instruct and censure the populace
1.3.2 Doctors

Annotations:

  • Masters of Theology, Hebrew - for spiritual and learned education
1.3.3 Elders

Annotations:

  • Oversee lives of everyone in the community and to admonish those who were erring/ leading a disorderly life
1.3.4 Deacons

Annotations:

  • Provision of charity and poor-relief to the less fortunate members of society
2 Samuel Ward's Diary
2.1 Puritan 'self-fashioning'
2.1.1 Margo Todd; conscious effort to create this identity/ a rite of passage
2.1.1.1 Self-flagellation and a process

Annotations:

  • Parallels with Calvin's own musings, and a fashion of self-deprecation and modesty to make one's efforts seem greater
2.1.1.2 Puritan work-ethic - never a wasted moment
2.2 25th May - hearing God's word

Annotations:

  • Nothing conduceth more to the true service and glory of God than often to hear his Word, to call upon him and such Christian exercise
  • A man must therefore labour above all things for alacrity in God's service
2.3 Calvinist academic at Cambridge
2.3.1 God a constant judge and companion
2.4 31st May - doubts and anxieties

Annotations:

  • "Not feeling of the reverance which I ought to have in the sight of God" - need for DISCIPLINED control of the faith.
  • Constant reflection on God's majesty and in seeking the truth - God's Word is above all
2.5 14th June - lacklustre devotion is sinful

Annotations:

  • Not taking in the sermons or fulfilling Christian practice means you are not following God's path.
  • God's omnipresence means nothing you do will go unnoticed, and he is a continual judge of your actions.
  • While you have no control of your election, you must live as uprightly as possible to prove you are one of the elect - receiving a sign of your election - keeping society morally disciplined
2.6 THEME - ennui towards religious devotion a sin

Annotations:

  • Needing to be extirpated from humanity and society
2.7 Plate on the Diary establishes disicplinary message

Annotations:

  • III. To give all glory to God. IV. To bear crosses patiently V. To do good works
3 GENEVA
3.1 Benedict - exemplary moral order

Annotations:

  • Assertions of a proper church discipline attracted godly visitors to Calvin's Geneva to rhapsodise about the exemplary moral order established there (Knox)
3.2 Mentzer - energetic ecclesiastical polity

Annotations:

  • Which centred on the local church and consistory
3.3 CONSISTORY
3.3.1 To implement city-wide order
3.3.2 Marriage counsel
3.3.2.1 Adultery, unrequited love and ownership of objects
3.3.2.2 Enforcing discipline and morality between spouses
3.3.3 Based on judicial and 'fairness' principles
3.3.3.1 Quest for the truth

Annotations:

  • Case of Jane and Bertin Vulliens in 1542 - "examine them better and learn the truth better from the parties on Monday"
3.3.3.2 Much deliberation

Annotations:

  • Evidence for claims brought forward a necessity
3.3.3.3 Emotions to be controlled

Annotations:

  • Place of humility, and no place for anger towards others
3.3.4 Calvin admonished those who failed to follow the true faith

Annotations:

  • 1542 - Donne Janne Pertennez - not following Scriptural guidelines and needing greater education
3.3.4.1 Assessing the religious understanding within the community
3.3.4.1.1 Most common concerns were church attendance and knowledge of prayers
3.3.5 Self-enforcement
3.3.5.1 People coming forward to repent

Annotations:

  • Seeking spiritual guidance and counsel, or vindication
3.3.5.2 Disciplining one another

Annotations:

  • Similar to Catholic confession, but for civic morality at large - upholding Calvinist ideals
3.3.6 Kingdon - Court and legal counselling service

Annotations:

  • Trying to instruct Genevan residents in the new religious obligations they had to follow
3.3.7 Watt - Anxious over female religious behaviour

Annotations:

  • Perhaps explained by Calvin's emphasis on women as moral examples for their children and husbands to follow - disciplined house leads to disciplined society
  • Religious education to shift from the church to the home a common Reformer's concern
3.3.7.1 1542 Official's Report

Annotations:

  • Women were more easily led astray or more ignorant with regard to Reformed practices
  • More frequently practising 'popish' doctrines
3.3.7.2 Loss of veneration of Mary and female saints

Annotations:

  • Women losing important religious role models
3.3.8 Benedict - Essential agency

Annotations:

  • For effecting the communal moral regeneration that appeared so attractive to so many, and the initial excitement of the Reformation
3.3.9 Initially no heresy cases

Annotations:

  • Not preaching conflicting views, but on the Scriptural knowledge of the populace
3.3.10 Against Catholic vestiges
3.3.10.1 Baptismal names dispute
3.3.10.2 Dancing
3.3.10.2.1 Removing the folk-tradition aspect
3.3.10.2.2 Associations with sex and fornication

Annotations:

  • Upholding pious lifestyle and 'upright' behaviour
3.3.11 Stages of correction

Annotations:

  • Excommunication final; inability to resolve the issue of sin
3.3.11.1 Beza consolidating Calvin's legacy

Annotations:

  • Issue of control and censuring the populace remained - carrying through with Calvin's vision with gusto
3.3.11.2 Excommunication losing severity?

Annotations:

  • 1 in 8 were excommunicated - multitude of cases and thus the moral judgement perhaps diminishes
4 SEPARATION FROM CATHOLICISM
4.1 Calvin and followers keen to separate from excesses and laxities of the Catholic faith
4.2 1559 - Knox's preaching and iconoclasm

Annotations:

  • Inspires an iconoclastic rampage in Perth to destroy all Catholic vestments and idols
4.2.1 Kirk sessions

Annotations:

  • Keen to commit to the central Protestant focus on the sermon and the godly life of moral DISCIPLINE and prayer
4.2.1.1 Fought Yule celebrations
4.3 Mentzer - distinguished unequivocally from 'papists'

Annotations:

  • Vigorous concept of election reinforced the penchant for arranging and defining the community
4.4 Paris Synod 1559

Annotations:

  • Establishes explicit, mutually agreed-upon rules for excommunication throughout the French Reformed churches
  • Polarity to Catholicism
4.4.1 Community cohesion through a shared Protestant identity and a common goal of devout, orderly society

Annotations:

  • Catholic clergy increasingly seen as corrupt by all Reformed communities
4.4.1.1 Following the Ten Commandments

Annotations:

  • Duties to God and duties to one's kindred human beings
4.5 Amsterdam Kerkeraad

Annotations:

  • Warned members against the fellowship of Catholics.
4.5.1
4.6 Recurrence of plague, famine and strife divine judgement for maintaining apostasy of popery
5 CONTEMPORARY EMPHASIS ON HIERARCHY
5.1 Discipline enshrined in the Calvinist justice system
5.1.1 Chareyne - mirrored the long-established social hierarchy
5.2 Kirk Sessions

Annotations:

  • Established a justice system of punishment to be meted out to those breaching moral codes, similar to Geneva's
5.3 Nimes - 'Discipline is the sinews of the church'
5.3.1 Moral order along social lines
5.4 Deacons from higher status having moral ascendancy
5.4.1 Co-ordinated the activity of the elders - a hierarchical system
5.5 Discipline a cure for the moral and civic ills of the period
5.6 Gender Hierarchy
5.6.1 Sanctity of marriage and abhorrence of pre-marital sex
5.6.2 Mentzer - the double standard

Annotations:

  • Officials prosecuting women for fornication, whereas men committing the same crime often ignored, or dealt a lesser punishment
  • Yet equal punishment for men and women committing adultery
6 SCOTLAND - M. Todd
6.1 Kirk's reputation of vigorous repression of festivity
6.1.1 1560 onwards - from local session to General Assembly, waged a stern, unremitting campaign
6.1.2 Squash popish superstition - blamed for plague and famine
6.1.3 New vision of the 'good life'

Annotations:

  • Community cohesion through a shared Protestant identity
6.2 REVISION
6.2.1 Flurry of legislation in 1570s

Annotations:

  • Spurred by the Reformer's recognition that thus far, Protestantism had made little dent in popular 'supersititous' celebration
6.2.1.1 Mild censures meted out, delayed compliance
6.2.1.1.1 1580s acts

Annotations:

  • Lacked the severity that would have assured compliance - punishment weak in context
6.2.1.1.2 'Fighting a losing battle'

Annotations:

  • Fines and admonitions having little effect
6.2.2 Kirk Sessions documents

Annotations:

  • Elders chose their battles carefully, and with the priorities of the larger church and community in mind
6.2.2.1 Vigorous attacks on masks and costumes

Annotations:

  • Principle concern with the wearing of disguises; gender inversion in dress - fundamental dishonesty
  • Ideas of misrule feared by civil and ecclesiastical authorities all across Europe
6.2.2.1.1 Concerned with the overturning of the gender hierarchy
6.2.2.2 Perth and Aberdeen reveal a slow pace of cultural Reformation
6.2.2.2.1 Secured the Reformation with this compromise

Annotations:

  • Less likely to face retaliation of vindication from over-punished locals unused to the new religous regime
  • Authorities behaved not most sternly but with most discrimination - multiple hues of compromise
6.2.3 Authorities tempered voluble disapproval with relative tolerance
6.2.4 TRANSFORMATION rather than the abolition witnessed on the continent
6.3 Aberdonian resistance vigorous when Kirk attempted to abolish Yuletide festivities
7 FRANCE - R. A. Mentzer
7.1 Montauban - 1595

Annotations:

  • Strongly Protestant French town - consistory with pastors, lay elders and lay deacons; moral issues their chief concern
7.1.1 Consistory's historical reputation

Annotations:

  • Tireless efforts toward identification and correction of fornication and adultery
7.1.2 Men and women performing humiliating penance for extramarital pregnancy
7.2 Consistories and civil magistrates having shared aim

Annotations:

  • Collusion of moral ideal
7.2.1 Cooperated in important ways

Annotations:

  • Cases coming to the Consistory's attention due to municipal justice
  • Ecclesiastical courts granted access to criminal court records and collaborative efforts existed in other Protestant towns
7.3 Goal of Refomed churches - orderly and godly society

Annotations:

  • Closely observing scriptural directives; especially the ethical code of the Decalogue
7.4 Parker - taming of a combative and contentious medieval culture
7.5 French Reformed churches cemented harmonious alliances at regional and local levels
7.6 Reformed ecclesiastical polity

Annotations:

  • Granted a substantial measure of authority and autonomy, while maintaining an elaborate presbyterian-synodal organisation
  • Pastors and elders assembled periodically in regional colloquies, and provincial and national synods to clarify dogma, institute policy and resolve disagreements
7.7 System well-suited to liberties and privileges of S. France

Annotations:

  • Consular governments long associated with such liberties etc
7.7.1 Reinforced tradition

Annotations:

  • Of municipal self-governance and strengthened the local elite's control over its own affairs
8 GRELL - INTERNATIONAL CALVINISM
8.1 Importance of godly merchants and ministers for the success and propagation of Calvinism largely recognised
8.1.1 Exercised social and moral control over the congregations they served
8.2 LONDON - attracted economic exiles from France
8.2.1 Encouraged royal hospitality to Dutch/ Walloon and French reformed immigrants during the C16th
8.3 Importance of the foundation of universities and Academies
8.3.1 Ghent (1578-83)
8.3.2 Herborn (1574)
8.3.3 Continued the Genevan tradition of attracting international students
8.4 WITTE Jr.
8.4.1 Principle of Democracy
8.4.1.1 Guaranteed constant reflection, renewal and reform within the church

Annotations:

  • Semper reformanda ecclesiae
8.4.2 Perpetual balance between law and liberty
8.4.2.1 Allowed Calvinist congregations to adapt/ adjust themselves to a variety of locales

Annotations:

  • Could accommodate local spiritual and cultural flavours without losing their core religious identity
8.4.2.1.1 What Calvin adumbrated, his followers elaborated
8.4.3 Doctrine of SIN
8.4.3.1 Led Calvinists to emphasise the need for individual discipline and structural safeguards on offices of authority
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