Cold Environment (Sustainable Development)

Janice Ma
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

AS Physical Geography OCR

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Janice Ma
Created by Janice Ma over 5 years ago
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Cold Environment (Sustainable Development)
1 Challanges
1.1 Econonmical
1.1.1 Costly
1.1.1.1 Case Study: Trans- Alaskan Pipeline. The total cost of $8 billion is required.
1.1.1.1.1 Special designs are required. The shape are zig-zag lined for contraction and expansion. Heat exchange machines are required to prevent it from sinking to the floor.
1.1.1.2 Housing
1.1.1.2.1 They have to be built higher
1.1.2 Seasonal Jobs
1.1.2.1 In the ski industry, it is usually populated during the winter season.
1.2 Environmental
1.2.1 Pollution
1.2.1.1 Case Study 1: Exxon Oil Spill.
1.2.1.2 Case Study 2: Nepal
1.2.2 Changing of food chain
1.2.2.1 Animals no longer hunt for food but searching for food in the rubbish
1.3 Social
1.3.1 Losing traditional way of living
1.3.1.1 Case Study: The Nenets, Siberia
1.3.2 Transports and nevigation
1.3.2.1 - Arctic Ocean’s northern sea route navigable for around 100 days in the summer, but frozen for the other 8 months in the year. - In summer, routes must cross the waterlogged land and roads can be impassable. -Rivers are used by barges in summer, but navigation is difficult due to flooding from snowmelt and large sandbanks that develop. - In winter, the frozen rivers are used as ice roads for trucks, yet there are risks of going through the ice of hitting obstacles.
1.3.3 Food Supply
1.3.3.1 High cost and limited resources
2 Oppotrunities
2.1 Economical
2.1.1 Increase in jobs opportunities
2.1.1.1 Case Study: The Alps, Switzerland
2.1.1.1.1 - Sufficient precipitation (i.e. snow) - Orographic rainfall - Frete = Black/**Black - Debris fan= Black slope =EASY
2.1.2 Economic Growth
2.1.2.1 Increase in foreign exchange --> Increase in GDP --> Economic growth
2.1.2.1.1 Case Study: Trans- Alaskan Pipleline
2.2 Social
2.2.1 Increase in living standard
2.2.1.1 Increase tax revenue = The government can use the money to compromise the public, e,g providing better education.

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