REACTION MECHANISMS

Alessandra Genco
Mind Map by Alessandra Genco, updated more than 1 year ago
Alessandra Genco
Created by Alessandra Genco almost 6 years ago
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Chemistry Mind Map on REACTION MECHANISMS, created by Alessandra Genco on 05/02/2014.

Resource summary

REACTION MECHANISMS
1 Alkanes - Radical Substitution
1.1 Initiation
1.1.1 In the first stage, radicals are formed. Ultraviolet radiation provides the energy to break the covalent bond in a bromine molecule, Br-Br. The bond breaks by homiletic fission. Br2 --> 2Br-
1.2 Propagation
1.2.1 In the second stage, the products are made. Br- + CH4 --> CH3- + HBr CH3- + Br2 --> CH3Br + Br-
1.2.2 Bromine radicals catalyse the propagation stage. They are not used up in the overall reaction
1.2.3 A bromine radical is used up in the first step and regenerated in the second
1.3 Termination
1.3.1 Two radicals combine
1.3.1.1 CH3- + Br- --> CH3Br
1.3.1.2 Br- + Br- --> Br2
1.3.1.3 CH3- + CH3- --> C2H6
2 Alkenes - Electrophilic Addition
2.1 In this type of reaction the halogen adds across the double bond as shown:
3 Halogenoalkanes - Nucleophilic substitution
3.1 In this type of reaction the nucleophile (OH-) attacks the back of the carbon atom, donating an electron pair. A new bond is formed and the carbon-halogen bond breaks
4 NUCLEOPHILE is an electron pair donor
5 AN ELECTROPHILE is an electron pair acceptor
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