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AQA Chemistry Additional

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GCSE - AQA: C1.1 The Fundamental Ideas in Chemistry
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Testing for ions
Joshua Rees
1 Treatment
1.1 Chlorine
1.1.1 Advantages: -Kills microbes/pathogens in water
1.1.2 Disadvanatges: -Reacts with harmless organic molecules, forming TOXIC/POISONOUS products
1.2 Flourine
1.2.1 Advantages: -Nobody has proved it has negative affects apart from fluorosis. -Fluoridation shows 30% reduction in teeth cavities -Prevents heart disease
1.2.2 Disadvantages: -In excess can weaken teeth -Can cause fluorosis -Some people are against mass medication -Water has to be monitored as it may already contain a lot of fluoride.
1.3 Water from resevoir
1.3.1 Screening Removal of solids and microbes Filtration Chlorination Houses
1.4 Pure Water: -Take water that is fit to drink. -Distil it by boiling. -Turns to gaseous steam which is cooled to condense. -This is collected.
1.5 Home Filters: -Filters that contain silver to kill bacteria -Carbon to absorb impurities - Ion exchange resins to soften water.
2 Permanent Hard water
2.1 Hard water: Formed when CALCIUM and/or MAGNESIUM ions dissolve in water
2.2 Scum
2.2.1 The m+c ions REACT WITH SOAP
2.2.2 Insoluble, cloudy substance that floats on the water
2.2.3 Can get soapless detergents
3 Benefits: -Ca2+ good for teeth and bones -Less risk of developing heart disease -Improves taste
4 Drawbacks: -Scum, need more soap to have the same cleaning affect therefore more money -Scum is unsightly on baths etc. -Scale reduces efficiency of heating systems and insulates the heating element in kettles, taking longer to boil
5 Temporary Hard Water
5.2 Can be removed by boiling. The HCO3 decomposes to form insoluble calcium carbonate - limescale
5.3 Scale
5.3.1 Insoluble solid
5.3.2 When temporary hard water is BOILED
5.3.3 Get water softners
6 Softening Hard Water
6.1 Softened by SODIUM CARBONATE - the carbonate ions react with the Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions to make an INSOLUBLE PRECIPITATE
6.2 Ion Exchange Columns: SODIUM or hydrogen ion resin in the columns, EXCHANGES them for the Ca or Mg ions

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