Chapter 5: Coastal change and Conflict (Part 2)

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Mind Map on Chapter 5: Coastal change and Conflict (Part 2), created by laurenclark90 on 05/04/2014.

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Chapter 5: Coastal change and Conflict (Part 2)
1 People + coastal retreat
1.1 Sue Earle, farmer - Hornsea, East Yorks
1.1.1 1994 - watched her home of 25 years be demolished - lost battle against north sea waves
1.1.1.1 Farm 39 years earlier 150m away form sea
1.1.1.1.1 erosion has accelerated when sea defences were built at Mappleton
1.2 Norcliffe family - Barmston, north of Hornsea
1.2.1 2004 - home was 1.5m away from edge
1.2.1.1 no defences against waves
1.2.1.1.1 The Humber estuary Coastal shorline management plan - 'do nothing' - potential economic damage to caravan parks + isolated farms - not enough to justify defences
1.2.1.1.1.1 a rollback policy for caravan parks but not homes
2 Holderness, East Yorkshire
2.1 60km long stretch of low cliffs (20-30m)
2.1.1 cliff line retreating - 2m a year - fastest in Europe
2.1.1.1 erosion takes place in storms + tidal surges (6m lost in a storm in 1967)
2.1.1.1.1 over 4 km lost since Roman times
2.2 what's the problem?
2.2.1 cliffs made of soft glacial clay
2.2.1.1 coast very exposed - waves have long fetch over north sea
2.2.1.1.1 sea level rise - more attack
2.2.1.1.1.1 destructive waves
2.2.1.1.1.1.1 Beaches are narrow due to longshore drift - little protection
2.3 conflicting views
2.3.1 The eldery - lived here whole lives - too old to move
2.3.2 Farmers - lost valuble land - no compensation
2.3.3 Caravan park owners - whole business threatened - cannot afford to buy more land
2.3.4 Politicians - not economically justifiable as the edges are not densely populated
2.3.5 Chief engineer - an inevitable natural process - impossible to protectwhole coast
3 Shoreline Management plans
3.1 1. Do nothing
3.1.1 2. Advance existing defence line by more hard engineering
3.1.1.1 3. Hold existing defence line by maintaining/ improving standard of protection
3.1.1.1.1 4. Retreat existing defence line (strategic realighnment)
3.2 strategies are expensive to put in place
3.2.1 so a cost-benefit analysis is done -
3.2.1.1 + how sustainable
3.3 Costs
3.3.1 loss of farmland
3.3.1.1 loss of caravan parks + holiday chalets
3.3.1.1.1 cost of sea defences
3.3.1.1.1.1 loss of houses
3.3.1.1.1.1.1 loss of roads
3.4 Benefits
3.4.1 no loss of homes or businesses
3.4.1.1 erosion of cliff stops
3.4.1.1.1 no loss of land or farms
3.4.1.1.1.1 coastline is stabilised
4 Coastal Management
4.1 Hard engineering
4.1.1 Sea wall
4.1.1.1 + protects cliffs and buildings
4.1.1.2 - Expensive
4.1.2 Groynes
4.1.2.1 + prevents sea removing sand
4.1.2.2 - exposes other areas of coastline
4.1.3 Rip rap
4.1.3.1 + rocks absorb wave energy
4.1.3.2 - expensive
4.1.4 Off-shore reef
4.1.4.1 + waves break on reef and lose power
4.1.4.2 - interfere with boats and fishing
4.2 Soft engineering
4.2.1 Beach replenishment
4.2.1.1 + sand reduces wave energy and maintains tourism
4.2.1.2 - expensive
4.2.2 Managed retreat
4.2.2.1 + people and activities avoid erosion by moving inland
4.2.2.2 - expensive and disruptive
4.2.3 Cliff regrading
4.2.3.1 + mass movement less likely
4.2.3.2 - foot of cliff still needs protection from waves
4.3 Integrated coastal zone mangement
4.3.1 the system of dividing the UK coastline into zones that can be managed holistically
4.3.1.1 reduces damage to environment
5 Case study of traditional coastal engineering structures
5.1 Durlston Bay, Dorset
5.1.1 erosion mainly occured at one particular point - major weakness in rock
5.1.1.1 safeguard houses + apartments on cliff top
5.1.2 Regrading cliff - extended forward at base - slope longer - therefore less steep
5.1.2.1 Installing drainage - remove excess water - slope not as heavy or lubricated after rain
5.1.2.1.1 Rip rap - large granite boulders (8 tonnes each) at base - resist wave attack
5.2 Swanage Bay, Dorset
5.2.1 erosion occured on a considerable length not just one point
5.2.1.1 safeguard houses and hoteld (e.g. Grand Hotel) gardens
5.2.2 Sea wall - built in 1920s - provided promenade and a barrier to wave attack
5.2.2.1 Cliff regrading - series of steps in cliff - lower slope angles
5.2.2.1.1 Groynes - timber groynes in 1930s - 18 recently replaced- reduced long shore drift - beach for protection
5.2.2.1.1.1 Beach replenishment - 90,000m3 from studland bay
5.2.2.1.1.1.1 cost of groynes and replenishment - £2 million
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