Carbohydrates - Sugars

phoebe
Mind Map by phoebe, updated more than 1 year ago
phoebe
Created by phoebe almost 6 years ago
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A Levels Food Technology Mind Map on Carbohydrates - Sugars, created by phoebe on 05/05/2014.

Resource summary

Carbohydrates - Sugars
1 Function
1.1 Carbs provide energy. (4Kcal/g) and fibre
2 Sugars
2.1 Monosaccharides
2.1.1 Glucose
2.1.1.1 All carbs are broken down into glucose for energy. Glucose is found in fruits, onions, potatoes and in many manufactured foods.
2.1.2 Fructose
2.1.2.1 This is a fruit sugar. It is very sweet and is used in the food industry as a small amount gives a lot of sweetness. It is very important in the manufacture of confectionary.
2.2 Disaccharides (2 mono's)
2.2.1 Sucrose (G+F). A household sugar that is produced in plants.
2.2.2 Lactose (G+Ga). Milk sugar- only tastes sweet when heated - caramelisation.
2.2.3 Maltose (G+G). Formed during the germination of Barley. Malt is a vital ingredient in brewing and is produced by the germination process.
2.3 Non Sugars
2.3.1 Simple Polysaccharides
2.3.1.1 Starch
2.3.1.2 Cellulose
2.3.1.3 Glycogen
2.3.2 Complex Polysaccharides
2.3.2.1 Pectin
2.3.2.2 Gums
2.4 Reducing sugars
2.4.1 Reducing sugars that have the ability to break down the Fehling's solution (blue) into a brick red colour - from the production of copper oxide.
2.4.2 EXCEPT for Sucrose lots of monosaccharides and disaccharides act as reducing agents. They bring about a reduction such as the removal of oxygen or the addition of hydrogen.
2.4.3 Only reducing sugars are involved in browning reactions occurring during heating, cooking and long storage - this is known as the MAILLARD REACTION.
2.4.4 THE MAIN NON REDUCING SUGAR IS SUCROSE!
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