Living and Growing part 1/2

stellzy
Mind Map by stellzy, updated more than 1 year ago
stellzy
Created by stellzy almost 6 years ago
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GCSE Biology (B3- Living and Growing) Mind Map on Living and Growing part 1/2, created by stellzy on 05/06/2014.

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Living and Growing part 1/2
1 Diffusion
1.1 Diffusion is the process by which useful materials and waste products move in and out of cells. Substances diffuse down a concentration gradient - from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Diffusion occurs in many living systems, for example the movement of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the lungs and in leaves.
1.2 Speeding up diffusion
1.2.1 Lots of info: https://www.examtime.com/en-GB/p/835607

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2 Diffusion in cells
2.1 oxygen, carbon dioxide and glucose enter and leave cells by diffusion.
2.2 When a cell is respiring the concentration of oxygen and glucose inside the cell is lower than the surrounding blood so these substances move into the cell.
2.2.1 As carbon dioxide is produced the concentration inside the cell increases to a level higher than the surrounding blood, so carbon dioxide diffuses out of the cell. Cell membranes are very thin to allow materials to diffuse through them easily.
2.3 http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_gateway_pre_2011/living/diffusionrev2.shtml
3 Blood circulation
3.1 Blood transports materials around the body and protects against disease. It consists of cells, solutes and liquid.
3.1.1 Blood is pumped away from the heart at high pressure in arteries and returns to the heart at low pressure in veins.
3.1.1.1 Heart problems include narrow rigid arteries, leaking heart valves and a faulty pacemaker.
3.2 What is in blood?
3.2.1 Red blood cells transport oxygen. These carry oxygen from the lungs to tissues. Oxygen transport is efficient because:
3.2.1.1 there are huge numbers of red blood cells
3.2.1.2 the cells are tiny to allow them to pass through narrow capillaries
3.2.1.3 the cells have a flattened disc shape to increase surface area allowing rapid diffusion of oxygen
3.2.1.4 they contain haemoglobin which absorbs oxygen in the lungs and releases oxygen in the rest of the body
3.2.1.5 Red blood cells have a large surface area to volume ratio to allow rapid diffusion of oxygen. Haemoglobin absorbs oxygen to form bright red oxyhaemoglobin in oxygen rich environments. In oxygen deficient environments this processes is reversed.
3.2.2 White blood cells protect against disease.
3.2.3 Blood platelets help the blood to clot.
3.2.4 Plasma
3.2.4.1 Plasma is a straw-coloured liquid. It transports dissolved substances around the body, including: hormones antibodies nutrients, such as water, glucose, amino acids, minerals and vitamins waste substances, such as carbon dioxide and urea
3.3 Video: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_gateway_pre_2011/living/movingrev1.shtml
3.4 Circulation
3.4.1 Blood is pumped at high pressure away from the heart in arteries. It travels through networks of thin capillaries, where it can exchange materials with the tissues. It's then collected up and returned to the heart at low pressure in veins
3.4.1.1 Table on different blood vessels: https://www.examtime.com/en-GB/p/835762
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