G4: Water

Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on G4: Water, created by 119ember on 05/07/2014.

Tags No tags specified
Created by 119ember over 5 years ago
Biological Molecules- Water
Tourism 2
Scott Church
Know the principles of electricity
1PR101 1.test - 7. část
Nikola Truong
Tourism 1
Scott Church
AQA GCSE Chemistry Unit 3 quiz
Gabi Germain
Molecular Biology
Fadila Farag
Unit 2 Practice Quiz
Coastlines 2
Scott Church
G4: Water
1 2.2 How do human activities influence water supply and demand?
1.1 Water Demand in England
1.1.1 The population in 2001 was at 8,000,550, in 2011 it was at 8,634,800.
1.1.2 An average of 167 litres per day is the avg. domestic consumption compared to an average of 151 litres per day in England and Wales.
1.1.3 The economy is second to London and is expanding at a rate of 3.1% annually compared to 2.2% nationally. As a result, the region has a higher consumption of water for industrial use than any other region in England and Wales.
1.1.4 Due to climate change, a reduction in summer rainfall of 8-23% is predicted and an increase in winter rainfall of 6-22%.
1.2 Solutions for the increasing water demand
1.2.1 Reservoirs are planned after 2020 in S.E England. Reservoirs can also be used for wildlife conservation, recreation, flood control. It takes a long time to plan and is expensive. It can damage the surrounding environment. Water may not be able to be taken out of the river if levels are already low
1.2.2 A large scale desalination plant in London was opened in 2010. The £270 London facility was opened as a safeguard against water shortages. Britain is surrounded by sea so saltwater is in unlimited Disposing the concentrated brine unsafely could harm the environment
1.2.3 River Severn-River Thames water transfer This involves abstracting water from the lower River Severn near Deerhurst and discharging it into the upper River Thames at Buscot. Then the water from the Thames would convey water downstream into existing reservoirs near London. An option of a 90km pipeline from Deerhurst direct to London reservoirs is an option to avoid mixing foreign water to the Thames. This project would cost at least £117 million, and a storage area would have to be built in Deerhurst. The hydrochemistry of the rivers would change which would affect the quality of the water and the organisms that live there.
1.3 Thames Water Utilities Ltd. (Thames Water) is a private utility company responsible for water supply and waste water treatment in the London and the Thames Valley.
1.3.1 The company supplies around 2.6 giga litres of drinking water a day from 100 water treatment centres through 32,000 km of managed water mains to 8.7 million customers
1.3.2 It removes and treats 2.8 giga litres of wastewater from 13.8 million customers to 349 sewage treatment works across the south of England.
1.4 Murray darling Basin Case study


2 2.3: How can water supply and demand be managed sustainably?
2.1 Water infrastructure in Singapore
2.1.1 Singapore has a population of 5.4 m. The country has suffered from water shortages although it receives 2,400 mm of ppt, this is because of its limited storage area. Malaysia supplies freshwater, but the agreement will end in 2064 and the prices has been increasing.
2.1.2 Public Utilities Bureau is now in charge of water issues in Singapore. In 1998, they proposed the NEWater Study which is water that has undergone stringent purification and treatment process using advanced dual-membrane (microfiltration adn reverse osmosis) The water produce now accounts for about 15% (about 90 million m3/day) and will provide 30% of the total water supply in the city state by 2010. SingSpring SWRO Plant, the first desalination in the country, began to be in operation in September 2005. It supplies 10% of the total water supply in the country with a capacity of 136 m3/day. By 2011, it will increase to 30%.
2.2 Thames Region
2.2.1 Artificial recharge of the London Basin groundwater supply; inter-regional transfer from the River Severn and the Anglian Region; groundwater development; desalination of saltwater in the Thames Estuary; re-use of effluents presently discharged into the Thames Estuary; reservoir storage in the SW Oxfordshire.
2.2.2 The total volume of groundwater that is allowed to be extracted is over 2305 million litres/day of which about 85% is used for potable supply 2/3 of the catchment is permeable and thus subject to direct recharge from rainfall. Pollutants can then infiltrate into the ground
2.2.3 Water efficient appliances such as low-water use washing machines, low flush toilet cisterns and water-wise gardening products.
2.2.4 The growth in tourism and recreation will increase the demand for water, e.g. restoration of disused canals will put a pressure on wtater resources.
2.2.5 Less rainfall, 690 mm, the national avg. is 800 mm
3 2.4: Can sustainable water supplies be maintained in the future?
3.1 Desalination
3.1.1 The salt is taken out to end up with pure water, the chemicals used and other by-products can harm the environment if not disposed of in the right way
3.1.2 Socially sustainable as families can operate small-scale desalination plants if water is scarce.
3.2 Water Recycling
3.2.1 Socially sustainable for use in agriculture and industry, however if used for drinking, the procedure should be stricter
3.2.2 Environmentally sustainable, as the water is reused which reduces the demand.

Media attachments