van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988): Cross-cultural variations

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A-Levels Psychology A-Level AQA A (Unit 1 Attachment and early social development) Mind Map on van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988): Cross-cultural variations, created by moeingthelawn on 05/10/2014.

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van IJzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988): Cross-cultural variations
1 Carried out a meta-analysis of 32 studies that have used the Strange Situation, undertaken in 8 different countries
2 BEE (1999)
2.1 There is considerable consistency across the cultures
2.1.1 This may be due to the same caregiver-infant interactions, which would produce similar secure and insecure attachments in all cultures HOWEVER, caregiver-infant interacts may be cultural rather than innate Japan and Israel studies show that a greater proportion of insecure infants were classified as resistant rather than avoidant
2.1.2 Similarity between countries may be due to mass media and its increasing effects
3 Contrasting study: GROSSMAN and GROSSMAN (1991)
3.1 German infants more likely to be classified as insecurely attached instead of securely attached
3.2 German cultural norm of keeping interpersonal distance between parents and children
3.2.1 Infants do not engage in proximity-seeking behaviours (as expected from American infants) in Strange Situation and thus seem to be insecurely attached
4 Therefore, it may not be appropriate to make direct comparisons between the findings of different countries due to cultural differences
5 Table does not tell us sample size of studies
5.1 In many cases, only a fairly small number of infants were involved in most of the studies
5.1.1 In the one China study, only 36 infants participated. Therefore, generalizations and conclusions about cultural differences need to be taken with caution