HODGES and TIZARD (1989)

moeingthelawn
Mind Map by moeingthelawn, updated more than 1 year ago
moeingthelawn
Created by moeingthelawn about 6 years ago
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A-Levels Psychology A-Level AQA A (Unit 1 Attachment and early social development) Mind Map on HODGES and TIZARD (1989), created by moeingthelawn on 05/10/2014.

Resource summary

HODGES and TIZARD (1989)

Annotations:

  • The effects of institutionalization is one way to study privation. In these situations the infants had never had the opportunity to form any attachments.  Hodges and Tizard conducted a longitudinal study (over a period of 16 years) investigating institutionalized infants.
1 AIMS
1.1 To investigate the effects of early privation on later social and emotional development
1.2 Longitudinal study of ex-institutional children
2 PROCEDURES
2.1 Natural experiment

Annotations:

  • Independent variable was not manipulated and occurred naturally
2.2 65 children placed in institution when under 4 months old
2.2.1 By 4 years, 24 had been adopted and 15 returned to original home; rest remained in institution
2.3 Policy in institution that caregivers are not allowed to form attachments with children = suggests that children experienced early privation
2.4 Assessed at 8 years and 16 years
2.4.1 Interviewed adopted and restored children
2.4.2 Also interviewed parents, teachers, and peers
2.5 There was also data from a control group of 'normal' peers
3 FINDINGS
3.1 Differences
3.1.1 Adopted children generally had close attachments to parents and good family relationships
3.1.2 Restored children did not have this closeness and attachment
3.2 Similarities
3.2.1 Outside the family, both adopted and restored children more likely to seek adult attention and approval
3.2.1.1 More likely than control group
3.2.2 Both groups were less successful in peer relationships than the control group
4 CONCLUSIONS
4.1 Evidence supporting maternal deprivation hypothesis
4.1.1 Outside the family environment, it would appear that early privation did have a negative effect on later social development
4.1.2 It may be that the adopted children had good family relationships because the parents made efforts to love them
4.1.2.1 But outside the home, they did not experience this love and so were unable to form relationships as easily
4.2 Evidence disagreeing with maternal deprivation hypothesis
4.2.1 Adopted and restored children differed within their family relationships
4.2.1.1 Restored children returned to same difficult circumstances before being in the institution
4.2.1.2 Adopted children went to homes where the parents had very much wanted a child
4.2.1.2.1 Therefore, recovery is possible given the right circumstances
5 EVALUATION
5.1 Random allocation
5.1.1 It may be that the adopted children were more socially able and appealing to the parents
5.1.1.1 Children's temperament becomes a confounding variable

Annotations:

  • Confounding variable - A variable that confounds the findings because it provides an alternative explanation of the results.
5.1.1.1.1 Cannot confirm a causal relationship between effects of early privation on later social and emotional development from this study
5.2 Attrition
5.2.1 Some PPs may have dropped out of the study as the years pass by
5.2.1.1 It may be that certain kinds of individuals are more likely to drop out, e.g. those less motivated or less well-adjusted
5.2.1.1.1 Biased sample
5.2.1.1.1.1 Not appropriate to generalize findings of study
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