The Coastal Zone

John Ditchburn
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GCSE and A Level AQA A GCSE Physical Paper 1 (7 The Coastal Zone) Mind Map on The Coastal Zone, created by John Ditchburn on 05/10/2014.

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John Ditchburn
Created by John Ditchburn over 5 years ago
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The Coastal Zone
1 Physical Processes Shaping the Coast
1.1 Waves
1.1.1 Constructive
1.1.1.1 Swash>Backwash
1.1.2 Destructive
1.1.2.1 Backwash>Swash
1.2 Weathering
1.2.1 Breakdown of landscape.
1.2.2 Physical
1.2.2.1 Freeze-thaw
1.3 Mass Movement
1.3.1 Rockfall
1.3.2 Landslide
1.3.3 Mudflow
1.3.4 Rotational slip
1.4 Marine (sea) Processes
1.4.1 Coastal erosion
1.4.1.1 Hydraulic action
1.4.1.2 Corrasion
1.4.1.3 Abrasion
1.4.1.4 Solution
1.4.1.5 Attrition
1.4.2 Transportation
1.4.2.1 Traction
1.4.2.2 Saltation
1.4.2.3 Suspension
1.4.2.4 Solution
1.4.2.5 Longshore Drift
1.4.2.5.1 Direction of waves
1.4.2.5.2 Direction of backwash
1.4.3 Deposition
2 Distinctive Landforms at the Coast
2.1 Erosion
2.1.1 Headlands and Bays
2.1.2 Cliffs and wave-cut platforms
2.1.3 Caves, arches, stacks
2.1.4 Case Study
2.1.4.1 Coastal erosion along the Holderness Coast
2.1.4.1.1 Flamborough Head
2.1.4.1.1.1 Arches, Stacks, Stumps, Wave-cut platform
2.2 Deposition
2.2.1 Beaches
2.2.2 Spits
2.2.3 Bars
2.2.4 Case Study
2.2.4.1 Spurn Head Spit, Holderness
3 Weathering, Mass Movement and Cliff Collapse
3.1 Case Study
3.1.1 Barton-on-Sea
3.1.1.1 Cliffs = weak sands and clays
3.1.1.2 Water builds up in the cliffs
3.1.1.3 Rotational Slumping occurs
3.1.2 Effects
4 Managing the Coast
4.1 Shoreline management plans
4.1.1 Developed for each part of the coast
4.1.2 Decision whether to
4.1.2.1 Hold the line (defend Coast)
4.1.2.2 Do nothing
4.1.2.3 Managed retreat
4.2 Hard engineering
4.2.1 Sea wall
4.2.2 Groynes
4.2.3 Rock armour
4.3 Soft engineering
4.3.1 Beach nourishment
4.3.2 Dune regeneration
4.3.3 Marsh creation
5 Case Study
5.1 Coastal Management on the Holderness Coast
5.1.1 Bridlington
5.1.1.1 Resort
5.1.1.2 Hold the line
5.1.1.2.1 Sea wall
5.1.1.2.2 Groynes
5.1.2 Mappleton
5.1.2.1 Hold the line
5.1.2.1.1 Large rock groyne
5.1.2.1.1.1 Sediment built up
5.1.2.2 Coast road
5.1.3 Great Cowden Farm
5.1.3.1 Low value farmland
5.1.3.2 Do nothing
5.1.4 Easington Gas Terminal
5.1.4.1 Valuable
5.1.4.2 Hold the line
5.1.4.2.1 Rock armour
5.1.4.2.2 Revetments
6 Effects of Rising Sea Level
6.1 Causes
6.1.1 Global warming
6.2 3mm per year
6.3 Case studies
6.3.1 East Coast and Thames Estuary
6.3.1.1 Risk of London flooding
6.3.1.1.1 Thames Barrier
6.3.1.2 Essex - low-lying marshes
6.3.2 Maldives
6.3.2.1 Low-lying islands
6.3.2.2 Loss of fresh water
6.3.2.3 Loss of tourism
7 Habitats of Coastal Environments
7.1 Case study
7.1.1 Studland nature reserve
7.1.1.1 Unique sand dune ecosystem
7.1.1.2 Rare birds (nightjar), insects & wildflowers e.g. marsh gentian
7.1.1.3 Vulnerable
7.1.1.3.1 Large number visitors
7.1.1.3.1.1 Litter
7.1.1.3.1.2 Parking
7.1.1.3.1.3 Fire - cigarettes
7.1.1.4 Solutions
7.1.1.4.1 Marram grass (dunes)
7.1.1.4.2 Limit car park spaces
7.1.1.4.3 Board walks
7.1.1.4.4 Information boards

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