Past Perfect

Libi Bendik
Mind Map by , created over 2 years ago

The use of Past Perfect.

Libi Bendik
Created by Libi Bendik over 2 years ago
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Past Perfect
1 (1) To show an action happened in the past before another event took place
1.1 (A) Words usually used with the Past Perfect tense are: When and After
1.2 (B) Words such as already, Just and As Soon As are also used with the Past Perfect tense.
1.3 After I had eaten five apples, I felt ill.
1.4 It had already stopped raining when I bought an umbrella.
1.5 The whole house had already burnt down when the firemen arrived.
1.6 I arrived at the cinema after the movie had started.
2 (2) For an action which happened before a definite time in the past
2.1 They had finished their prayers by 10 o'clock.
3 (3) For an action which took place and completed in the past
3.1 He had hurt his back in an accident at work and he had to stay home for three months.
4 (4) The past perfect is commonly used in reported speech. If the actual spoken words use the simple past, the past perfect is often used in reporting those words
4.1 Common reporting verbs include Tell (someone), Say, Find Out, Learn and Discover
4.2 Jenny said she had lost her keys.
5 If either Before or After is used in the sentence, the Past Perfect is often not necessary because the time relationship is already clear
5.1 After the guests left, I went to bed = I left to bed after the guests left
6 Past Perfect tense used after certain expressions:
6.1 I knew (that) his brother had gone to work overseas.
6.2 I thought (that) we had got on the wrong train.
6.3 I was sure (that) they were right there!

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