Going global

jonw234
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-Levels geography Mind Map on Going global, created by jonw234 on 05/13/2013.

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jonw234
Created by jonw234 over 6 years ago
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1 Switched on/off
1.1 Reasons why countries are switched on

Annotations:

  •  Oil resources - Large labour forces - Physical factors such as relief and mineral deposits (aid industry growth) - Location (eg pacific rim) encourages investment - Skilled labour (universities)
1.2 reasons why countries are switched off

Annotations:

  • - Civil war or fighting - politically isolated and unstable - Highly vulnerable to climate change and natural hazards - physical isolation and lack of coastline deters inward investors seeking an import/ export base  - poor resources for agriculture - resources controlled by a small elite - lack of skills and literacy deters inward investros - resources controlled by foreign TNCs
2 Winners/losers
2.1 winners

Annotations:

  • - China       - Huge population       - Natural resources       - Healthcare/education-skilled and health workforce       -Export processing zones: to stimulate cheap mass manufacturing       - TNCs- low labour costs       Environmental issues       -social issues- education and health care cost now/ low pay       - Migration - overcrowding in urban areas
  • -India        -Bangalore: outsourcing high tech TNCs (education, skill, language)        - Poverty gap between rich and poor - low wage poor treatment of many        - Rural areas suffer - cheaper food imports
2.2 Losers

Annotations:

  • Africa            - Dept              OPEC money-western banks - development projects in Africa - 1980s interest rates rise - dept/interest repayment - IMF structural adjustment packages (SAP) - No credit for countries + govt spending cuts - less for education and health - farmers use marginal land - drought
  • - Zambia      Copper - price fall - dept HDI fall - Tanzania         Cotton - price fall - govt gets less tax - HDI fall -Kenya         Dept- grow flowers for EU - drought - water diverted for flowers - food and water shortages   
3 Consequences of globalisation

Annotations:

  • Economic + 'Tiger economies' globalisation and TNCs bring wealth to poorer ploaces + FDI is encouraged - wealth to less developed countries and regions - Manufacturing economies of Sheffield/ Manchester were decimated by globalisation - Wealth is not evenly spread in these new economies. The income gap between rich and poor has often widened due to globalisation
  • Environmental +Migration can help host and source countrie - Waste ends up as landfill, if it is not/cannot be recycled, although new EU rules are making it more expensive to dispose waste in this way - Hidden costs of recycling paper/plastics shipped to China for recycling - more greenhouse gases - global demand for timber - deforestation-Oil pollution - shipping lanes- food miles and air miles
  • Social - Worker exploitation in sweatshops. Yonkkang, the 'dismemberant capital' of China- Trade blocs, EU can help trade in the bloc but increase tariffs for outside countries - Cultural globalisation can submerge local culture
4 Effects of globalisation on the UK
4.1 social

Annotations:

  • -Hospital and nursing homes full inadequate - housing shortages Health problems- issues for NGO / NHS
  • Solutions late retirement, raise the pension age, private pensions
4.2 Economic

Annotations:

  • - Depletion of labour force - burden on economically active - Deterioration of economy - cost of funding pensions and health
  • Benefits Grey pound, community and voluntary work, low crime
5 How migration has changed the face of the EU
5.1 Poland to UK

Annotations:

  • push - Unemployment/ underemployment for skilled workers
  • pull -wages - low but better than POland -Employment opportunity
  • Positives Ageing pop - workers, work ethic, low skilled jobs negatives Public services, racial tension
5.2 Britons to Spain

Annotations:

  • push -Weather, lifestyle, cost of living
  • pull weather lifestyle property price, taxes and bills lower
  • fewer obstacles - low cost of air travel road building in Spain , internet etc. However lack of care for elderly, cost of health care high, isolated aging communities, coastal development - beauty, currency also property price for local rises
6 Lees model of migration
6.1 source

Annotations:

  • benefits Natural increase slows as young adults leave, slightly less pressure on resources, remittance sent back, return migrants bring skills and money to invest
  • costs Population becomes older, fewer people to develop countries resources, loss of skilled workers, 'Westernisation' of returnees, diminished cultural variation
6.2 Host

Annotations:

  • Benefits Demographic replacement for declining population , human resources enhanced, labour forces needed, pay taxes, multi cultural society
  • costs racial/social tension, gender concentrations, increased pressure on resources unless their contribution to the economy raises the living standard, social support if unemployed, educational demands, exploited labour
7 Urbanisation
7.1 London UK

Annotations:

  • Largely rural population> urbanisation> Suburbanisation> Counter Urbanisation> Re urbanisation>
  • Migrants: will first locate to the inner city (more affordable housing, already established ethnic communities, proximity to employment opportunities)
  • Gentrification: Restoration of run down urban area by the middle class can result in the displacement of low-income residents. Docklands 
7.2 Mumbai, India

Annotations:

  • economy depends on out-sourced work, city is also home to Bollywood, London and Mumbai are linked via global networks> flows of migration and investment Slums on urban fringes and city centre> areas where new comers live> close to jobs/no otherland available. Rich often confined> apartments in CBD surrounded by poverty
  • growth> Dharavi slums, informal work, poor conditions>congestion, pollution, water problems
  • Vision Mumbai> sustainable future, housing, infrastructure, economy, government, transport, BUT Dharavi slum, cleared (provides much informal work, recycling and small businesses , and is sustainable
  • success> jobs in special special export zones, services (finance, health, entertain) construction, retail, attract FDI, skills and services, middle class, Navi Mumbai
8 McDonaldsTNC

Annotations:

  • Found in 119 countries serves nearly 47 million people everyday has 31,000 restaurants worldwide employs 1.5 million people 
  • glocalistation is the concept of changing certain aspects to suit the certain culture   McDonalds have changed their menus and toys to suit their different countries culture
  • Portugal is the only country with McDonald's restaurant serving country
  • Positives McDonalds make a scheme to reduce their carbon footprint Vegetable grease is recycled and converted into fuel  Uses recycled materials for packaging Opened Green restaurants in Chicago  reduced the amount of packaging High standards of hygene Get coffee beans from ethical suppliers
  • negatives Discarding of food and packaging contributes to urban litter Soya is supplied from a company called Cargill. They have been accused of destroying the rainforest factories, in China and Vietnam use sweat shop labour and poor environmental records  
9 Intergration

Annotations:

  • Economies of scale Companies expand production to increase efficiency and reduce production costs
  • economic reasons overseas investment to avoid labour and environmental regulations to keep production costs low
  • Mobility Cheaper and faster travel, as well as improving technology and communication systems.
9.1 horizontal

Annotations:

  • By buying and taking over the competition
9.2 Vertical

Annotations:

  • By controlling and owning every stage of production from primary to quaternary industries.

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