INVESTIGATIONS

barkerjames14
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

OCR Psychology Investigation Paper Revision

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barkerjames14
Created by barkerjames14 over 5 years ago
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INVESTIGATIONS
1 SELF-REPORT
1.1 Questionnaires & Interviews
1.1.1 Two types: Non-directive & Fully structured
1.1.1.1 Non-directive is good for counselling and therapy
1.1.1.2 Fully structured gives the experimenter the answers they want quickly
1.1.2 Different types of question: Closed questions, open questions & rating scales
1.2 RELIABILITY ISSUES - Based on personal opinion - questions often open to interpretation
1.2.1 IMPROVED - use more closed questions with categorised answers - repeat experiment
1.3 VALIDITY ISSUES - Participants may lie or give desired answers - often qual data, considered unvalid
1.3.1 IMPROVED - avoid leading questions - inforce confidentiality - use a pilot
1.4 ETHICS - Doesn't always fully reveal what investigation is investigating - confidentiality - can ask personal question
1.5 STRENGTHS - source of primary data (valid) - large amount of data quickly
1.6 WEAKNESSES - open questions often subjective - response bias & social desirability
2 OBSERVATION
2.1 Participant and non-participant
2.1.1 Better understanding - naturalistic - investigator bias - deceptive - highly subjective
2.1.2 Ethically good - no investigator bias - generally objective - May misinterpret - unnaturalistic
2.1.3 Time and event sampling
2.2 ETHICS - Obtaining consent and keeping it covert difficult - whether to include results of those unhappy with being part
2.3 RELIABILITY ISSUES - Dependent on the opinions of observer (subjective) - human error e.g. miss things
2.3.1 IMPROVED - Inter-rater reliability - watch through one-sided mirror
2.4 VALIDITY ISSUES - Behaviours may be misinterpreted
2.4.1 IMPROVED - Use a pilot - then decide whether test is valid
2.5 STRENGTHS - First hand knowledge, both types of data, likely to get natural behaviour
2.6 WEAKNESSES - Observer effects - Observer bias - Ethical issues
3 EXPERIMENT
3.1 STRENGTHS - First hand knowledge - easy to establish casual relationship - large samples
3.2 WEAKNESSES - Investigator bias - extraneous variables - ecological validity (mundane realism)
3.3 Laboratory, Field & Natural
3.3.1 Takes place in an environment controlled by the experimenter
3.3.2 Takes place in the subject's natural environment
3.3.3 IV is naturally occuring (also called Quasi-Experiment)
3.4 RELIABILITY ISSUES - Analysing the data from experiment could be subjective or human error - participants have individual differences so complete reliability hard to achieve
3.4.1 IMPROVED - inter-rater analysis - use matched pairs design
3.5 VALIDITY ISSUES - Does the test actually test the dependent variable in relation to the independent variable - lab experiments may not be ecologically valid - are extraneous variables eliminated
3.5.1 IMPROVED - conduct a pilot study - use field experiments or Quasi-experiments
3.6 DESIGNS
3.6.1 Independent measures - groups include different participants in each one which are not made to resemble each other
3.6.1.1 Lacks reliability
3.6.2 Repeated measures - groups are carried across between conditions so the participants are exactly the same
3.6.2.1 Can result in order effects
3.6.3 Matched Pairs - groups include different participants in each one but are made to resemble each other in their characteristics
3.6.3.1 Difficult to make them fully resemble each other, time consuming
3.7 Null and alternative hypotheses
3.7.1 Null - saying there is will be no difference between two conditions
3.7.1.1
3.7.2 Alternative - there will be a difference between two conditions
3.7.2.1 OPERATIONALISE!
3.8 Displayed by frequency polygons & histograms
3.8.1
4 CORRELATION
4.1 STRENGTHS - Shows the relationship between two co-variables and strength - not unethical at all - starting point for research
4.2 WEAKNESSES - Cannot assume cause and effect - secondary data so risks with validity
4.3 Positive or negative correlation
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.4 ETHICS - good as all data is secondary and no participants are involved
5 TYPES OF SAMPLE
5.1 Snowball - Investigator approaches one participant who in turn approaches several others and the sample 'snowballs' to become a large sample
5.2 Opportunity - Not really a 'technique', researcher uses people that are readily available, usually known to investigator prior to experiment
5.3 Random - All target population have an equal chance of being selected, usually using a computer to ensure complete randomness, very rarely used
5.4 Systematic - Finding a starting point within a target population and then obtaining subsequent participants by using a constant interval e.g. every 10th person
5.5 Stratified - Target population is divided into subgroups and then random samples are taken from the subgroups