Bowlby's Theory of Attachment

Jessica Phillips
Mind Map by , created about 4 years ago

A Levels Psychology (AS) Mind Map on Bowlby's Theory of Attachment, created by Jessica Phillips on 09/30/2015.

Jessica Phillips
Created by Jessica Phillips about 4 years ago
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Bowlby's Theory of Attachment
1 Attachment is Adaptive and Innate
1.1 Children have an innate drive to become attached to a caregiver for protection
1.2 Adaptive because the behaviours increase the chance of survival
1.3 Evolutionary Theory
1.3.1 Behavioural system evolved because of its survival and reproductive value
1.4 Similar to imprinting
2 Sensitive Period
2.1 Since attachment is innate there is likely a limited window for its development
2.2 Suggested that 2nd quarter of the 1st year is when infants are most sensitive to the development of attachment
2.3 Becomes increasingly difficult to form infant-caregiver attachment as months pass
3 Evaluation
3.1 Individual Differences
3.1.1 Children can form different types of attachment Secure and insecure attachments Responsiveness of caregiver is the main factor in determining type of attachment formed
3.2 Cultural Variations
3.2.1 Attachment is subject to cultural influences Some cultures promote dependency rather than independency by secure attachment
4 Caregiving is Adaptive
4.1 The drive to provide caregiving is also innate because it is adaptive
4.1.1 Social releasers elicit caregiving
5 A Secure Base
5.1 Safe place from which a child can explore
5.1.1 Attachment fosters independence
6 Internal Working Model
6.1 Mental model about emotional relationships
6.1.1 What individuals expect from others and relationships
7 Monotropy and Hierarchy
7.1 Primary attachment - Monotropy
7.1.1 Bias towards one individual Most attached to the most responsive to social releasers Usually the mother
7.1.2 Foundation for emotional development, self-esteem and later relationships
7.2 Secondary attachments form hierarchy
7.2.1 Act as safety net
7.2.2 Contribute to social development Children without hierarchy appear to lack social skills
8 The Continuity Hypothesis
8.1 Links in with the internal working model
8.2 There is a link between early attachment relationship and later emotional behaviour
8.2.1 Those who are insecurely attached have social and emotional difficulties later on in life

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