OWT 221 Motivation at Work

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Mind Map on OWT 221 Motivation at Work, created by finn.grahe on 05/17/2014.

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OWT 221 Motivation at Work
1 Assumptions about Human Nature
1.1 4 Approaches to Work Motivation
1.1.1 Reinforcement Theories -Behaviourism & Power of Environment
1.1.2 Need Theory - Hollistic psychology, A Maslow
1.1.3 Cognitive Theory - Process of Choice & Social Comparison Expectancy & Equity Theory. Positive psychology
1.1.4 Task - Centred Theories - Job Enrichment, Job characteristics model
2 McGregor Theory X
2.1 People are inherently lazy and must be motivated by outside incentives
2.2 Peoples natural goals run counter to those of the organisation
2.3 People are irrational and incapable of self-control
2.4 Not everyone has all above characteristics
3 Rational Economic Model (1988)
3.1 Employees are motivated by Economic incentives
3.2 Such people can therefore be motivated and controlled by the organisation
3.3 Feelings are irrational and many present rational calculation of self-interest
3.4 Organisations should therefore control and neutralise feelings and devise appropriate PRP schemes
4 Gary Becker - Economic Approach to Human Behaviour 1976
4.1 People act to maximise their welfare
4.2 They do this regardless of the goods at stake
4.3 The economic approach does not assume we are necessarily conscious of their efforts to maximise, or can verbalise the reasons for their behaviour
4.4 Leavitt and Dunbar 2006 Freakenomics
4.4.1 Everything is not what it seems to be, a swimming pool is more dangerous than a gun. Incentives have both positive and negative effects
4.4.1.1 25,000 Dollars for teachers ho got good score tests from pupils in California. Most of them cheated due to the incentive. Most of them taught the test.
5 Utilitarianism
5.1 Everyone wishes to maximise their own happiness
5.1.1 Its morally good to try to do this
5.2 Society must be organised so that individual happiness maximisation is good for others
5.3 It's possible to arrange society so as to produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number
6 The Protestant Work Ethic
6.1 Taboo on idleness
6.2 Industriousness is a religious ideal
6.3 Ambition, success and material wealth a sign of Gods favour
6.4 Universal sign of Sin is poverty
6.5 Work as a central life Interest
6.6 People have a moral and religious obligation to fill their lives with a heavy physical toll
6.7 Men & Women are expected to spend long hours at work, with little or no time for personal recreation and leisure
6.8 Workers should be highly productive and produce a large quantity of goods or service
6.9 Workers should be achievement orientated and constantly strive for promotions and advancement
7 Pay & Work Motivation Lawler (1981)
7.1 Pay May be Effective When:
7.1.1 People believe better performance will lead to more pay (expectancy)
7.1.2 There are no Negative consequences for Performing Well
7.1.3 Other positive outcomes result from increased performance
7.1.4 Socialisation into Protestant Work Ethic is effective
7.2 Pay may not effectively Motive if:
7.2.1 Performance is difficult to Measure
7.2.2 Performance is measured subjectively
7.2.3 Large pay rewards cannot be given
7.2.4 Workers are not primarily interested in pay or situation is low trust
8 The Whitehall Study (1985 - 1993) Bosma et al (1997)
8.1 10,000 Civil servants. 33% Women in all hierarchical levels
8.2 Objective - Subjective ratings of work: demands, control social support
8.3 Minor risk factors for coronary heart disease: status, dissatisfaction, diet exercise
8.4 Major risk factors: low job control, low decision latitude in skill discretion
9 Taylor REM
9.1 The introduction of Taylor's Scientific Management allowed organisations to use economic incentives as a primary factor in motivating their workforce. As Taylor also believed workers were economically motivated
9.2 Scheins REM was based on principles of Scientific Management
9.3 Taylor getting Schmidt to handle 47 tons of pig iron per day with every movement throughout the day controlled by someone. The main incentive for the hard graft ahead was that Schmidt’s pay would be increased Within the three years of completing the hard daily task, Schmidt never failed to work at the pace he once started with. Thus, the outcome supports the rational economic model’s adequacy as Schmidt was purely motivated by economic means.
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