OCR Gateway GCSE - Biology B3

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Mind Map on OCR Gateway GCSE - Biology B3, created by joshua6729 on 18/05/2014.

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Created by joshua6729 over 5 years ago
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OCR Gateway GCSE - Biology B3
1 DNA, proteins and mutations
1.1 Protein synthesis occurs on ribosomes in the cytoplasm
1.1.1 The code needed to produce a protein is carried from the DNA to the ribosomes by a molecule called mRNA
1.2 Proteins are: Made up from long chains of amino acids and can be structural, hormones, carrier molecules or enzymes
1.3 Mutations can lead to the production of many different proteins. This is because a change in bases in DNA can change the amino acid sequence.
1.4 Chromosomes are long coiled up molecules of DNA, divided up into regions called genes
1.5 Enzymes work by a lock and key mechanism
1.6 Enzymes activity is affected by pH and temperature. This is due to: lower collision rates at lower temperatures, denaturing at extreme of pH and high temperatures
1.7 Proteins are coded for by DNA: The base sequence codes for the order of amino acids, each amino acids is coded for three bases
2 Cell division and cell growth
2.1 In meiosis, the chromosome number is halved and each cell is genetically different
2.2 There are a number of differences between plant growth and animal growth
2.3 Growth can be measured by a change in wet mass, dry mass or length. each method has advantages and disadvantages but dry mass is the best measure
2.4 Gametes are produced by meiosis
2.5 New cells for growth are produced by mitosis
2.6 The new cells made by mitosis are genetically identical
2.7 Being multicellular allows organisms to: be larger, use cell differentiation
2.8 Undifferentiated cells called steam cells can develop into different cells, tissues and organs
3 Respiration and circulation
3.1 the symbol equation for aerobic respiration is:
3.2 Red blood cells carry oxygen around the body and are especially adapted for this function
3.3 The heart has four chambers and is part of a double circulatory system
3.4 Anaerobic respiration takes place during hard exercise when there is insufficient oxygen avaliable
3.5 Anaerobic respiration produces lactic acid, which: Builds up muscles causing pain and fatigue, acts as oxygen debt and has to be broken down in the liver after exercise
3.6 Arteries have thick elastic walls and carry blood away from the heart, Veins have large lumens and valves, and carry blood back to the heart
4 Changing genes and cloning
4.1 Gene therapy involves changing a person's genes to try and cure disorders
4.2 Genetic engineering can be used to produce useful products but raises some ethical issues

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