The Development Gap

John Ditchburn
Mind Map by John Ditchburn, updated more than 1 year ago
John Ditchburn
Created by John Ditchburn almost 6 years ago
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GCSE and A Level AQA A GCSE Human Paper 2 (4 The Development Gap) Mind Map on The Development Gap, created by John Ditchburn on 05/18/2014.
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The Development Gap
1 Contrasts in Development
1.1 Ways of dividing the World
1.1.1 1st, 2nd, 3rd Worlds
1.1.2 North/South
1.1.3 Different stages of development
1.1.3.1 LDC (LEDC)
1.1.3.2 MDC (MEDC)
1.1.3.3 NIC
1.1.4 Five-fold division based on wealth
1.1.4.1 1 Rich industrialising countries
1.1.4.2 2 Oil-exporting countries
1.1.4.3 3 newly industrialising countries (NICs)
1.1.4.4 4 Former centrally planned economies (previously communist)
1.1.4.5 5 Heavily indebted countries
1.2 Measuring development
1.2.1 Correlation
1.2.1.1 GDP-Education = +ve
1.2.1.2 GDP-No. of people per doctor = -ve
1.2.1.3 High Development -> High HDI (Human Development Index)
1.2.2 Limitations of single measures (e.g death rate, birth rate, GNP
1.2.3 Advantages of multi-variable approach
1.2.3.1 Physical quality of life index (PQLI)
1.2.3.1.1 Literacy
1.2.3.1.2 Life expectancy
1.2.3.1.3 Infant mortality
1.2.3.2 Human development index (HDI)
1.2.3.2.1 Life expectancy
1.2.3.2.2 Literacy
1.2.3.2.3 Income
2 Global Inequalities
2.1 Factors making inequalities worse
2.1.1 Physical
2.1.1.1 Climatic hazards
2.1.1.1.1 Drought
2.1.1.1.2 Tropical Storms
2.1.1.2 Tectonic
2.1.1.2.1 Earthquakes
2.1.1.2.1.1 e.g. Haiti
2.1.2 Economic
2.1.2.1 Poverty
2.1.2.2 Low life-expectancy
2.1.2.3 Low standard of living
2.1.3 Environmental
2.1.3.1 Desperate poor farmers don't look after the land
2.1.4 Social factors
2.1.4.1 Water
2.1.4.2 Education
2.1.4.3 Health
2.1.5 Political
2.1.5.1 Poor government
2.2 Physical factors making inequalities worses
2.2.1 Case Study
2.2.1.1 Haiti Earthquake 2010
3 Reducing Inequalities
3.1 Loans and aid
3.1.1 Conservation swaps
3.1.1.1 Debts written off in exchange for promise to look after environment
3.1.1.1.1 Bolivia Rainforest 1970s
3.1.2 Loans
3.1.2.1 e.g. Brazil to build factories 1970s
3.1.2.2 Have to be paid back
3.1.2.2.1 Failure -> in debt
3.1.2.2.1.1 People have to work hard to pay debt
3.1.2.2.1.2 Debts can be written off by rich countries
3.1.2.3 Borrow - e.g. from Word Bank
3.1.2.4 Microloans
3.1.2.4.1 Start small businesses
3.1.2.4.1.1 e.g. Bangladesh
3.1.3 Aid
3.1.3.1 Gifts
3.1.3.1.1 Money, food machinery
3.1.3.1.2 "Tied aid"
3.1.3.1.2.1 Conditions attached
3.1.3.1.2.1.1 Payback required
3.1.3.2 Short-term
3.1.3.2.1 Emergency aid
3.1.3.2.1.1 Food
3.1.3.3 Long-term
3.1.3.3.1 Build schools hospitals
3.1.3.3.2 Invest in Industry
3.1.3.3.3 Needs infrastructure & support for success
3.1.3.4 Avantages & disadvantages of short & long-term
3.2 Fairtrade
3.2.1 Small case study
3.2.1.1 Cuapo Cocoa (chocolate)
3.2.1.1.1 Ghana
3.3 Case study of Development Project (one of those shown in detail, or one of your own)
3.3.1 Goat Aid
3.3.2 Computer Aid
3.3.3 Cahora Bassa Dam (Mozambique)
4 Contrasts in the EU
4.1 EU - Development high
4.1.1 Life expectancy - over 70 for all countries
4.2 Significant differences
4.2.1 GDP per capita
4.2.1.1 Luxembourg - 7x that of Bulgaria
4.3 Ireland
4.3.1 Poor country before joining EU in 1973
4.3.1.1 1990's
4.3.1.1.1 Rapid economic growth
4.3.1.1.1.1 High tech service industries
4.3.1.1.1.1.1 e.g. Apple Europe
4.4 Policies to reduce inequalities
4.4.1 CAP (Common Agricultural Policy)
4.4.1.1 Subsidies to farmers
4.4.1.1.1 Guarantee food production
4.4.1.1.2 Ensure fair standard of living for farmers
4.4.1.1.3 Ensure reasonable prices
4.4.2 European Investment Bank
4.4.2.1 For regions suffering difficulties
4.4.3 Urban II fund
4.4.3.1 Jobs & sustainability in urban areas
4.4.4 Structural funds
4.4.4.1 Infrastructure, especially transport
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