Biology B3 OCR GCSE

Aprillia
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on Biology B3 OCR GCSE, created by Aprillia on 05/21/2014.

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Aprillia
Created by Aprillia over 5 years ago
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Biology B3 OCR GCSE
1 Molecules of Life
1.1 Mitochondria are structures in cells where respiration happens. Ribosomes are too small to see using the light microscope. Chromosomes are made from DNA. Genes are short sections of DNA. Each gene is a set of coded instructions for making a particular protein.
1.2 Mitochondria are tiny structures found in cells (one is called a mitochondrion). Respiration, the chemical reaction that releases energy from glucose, happens in mitochondria. This provides energy for life process such as movement and growth. Tissues and organs that need a lot of energy have large numbers of mitochondria in their cells. For example, liver cells and muscle cells contain a lot of mitochondria.
1.3 Chromosomes The cell's nucleus contains chromosomes. These are long, coiled molecules of DNA, divided up into regions called genes.
1.4 DNA The information contained in genes is in the form of coded instructions called the genetic code. The genetic code controls cell activity, which means that it also controls some characteristics of the organism.
1.4.1 DNA controls the production of different proteins. These are needed for the growth and repair of cells.
1.5 Two scientists, James Watson and Francis Crick, worked out the structure of DNA. By using data from other scientists they were able to build a model of DNA. The data they used showed that bases occurred in pairs. Further x-ray data showed that there were two chains wound into a double helix.
1.6 A double helix DNA shown as a double twisted string with interlinking parts Base pairs on a DNA molecule Each strand of DNA is made of chemicals called bases. Do not confuse these with the bases you meet when you study acids and alkalis in chemistry. There are four different types of bases, shown as A, T, C and G
1.7 Protein structure is determined by the DNA base code. Proteins are made from lots of amino acids joined together. Each amino acid is coded by the sequence (order) of three bases. For example, GGT codes are found in glycine but TCA codes are found in serine, a different amino acid.
1.8 Messenger RNA (mRNA)
1.8.1 mRNA from DNA is called transcription. Proteins from mRNA is called translation
2 Proteins and mutations
2.1 Proteins are made from long chains of different amino acids. Enzymes are a type of protein that speeds up the chemical reactions inside cells. Each type of enzyme does a specific job. Enzymes work best at optimum temperatures and pH values. Mutations can affect the ability of a protein to work properly.
2.2 Proteins are polymers, relatively large molecules made from many smaller molecules. Each protein molecule is built up from amino acids, smaller monomer molecules that join end to end to make the protein polymer molecule.
2.3 Different types of protein have different functions.
2.3.1 Structural- Collagen Hormone- Insulin Carrier molecule- Haemoglobin Enzyme- Amylase
2.4 Enzymes are biological catalysts – protein molecules that speed up chemical reactions. They catalyse chemical reactions in living cells such.
2.4.1 Examples of these chemical reactions are: Respiration Photosynthesis Protein synthesis
2.5