Morality in the Modern World - Gender Studies

Rosie:)
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SQA Advanced Higher RMPS Mind Map on Morality in the Modern World - Gender Studies, created by Rosie:) on 05/21/2014.

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Rosie:)
Created by Rosie:) over 5 years ago
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Morality in the Modern World - Gender Studies
1 Religion & Morality
1.1 The Euthyphro Dilemma
1.1.1 discussion between Socrates & Euthyphro
1.1.1.1 what makes an action morally good?
1.1.1.1.1 are things right or wrong in themselves or are they only right or wrong in relation to the wishes of the gods?
1.1.1.1.1.1 Greek Gods were fickle
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 why would they create a moral code only to break it?
1.1.1.1.1.2 if not the gods, then how does an action become good?
1.1.1.1.1.2.1 higher power than the gods?
1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 many people commit morally unacceptable acts because they believe that their god has told them to
1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 does this mean that gods can make mistakes?
1.1.1.1.1.2.1.2 does morality come from the divine or is moral as of itself?
1.1.2 Absolute, Relative & Arbitrary
1.1.2.1 Absolute
1.1.2.1.1 something is always right/wrong regardless of circumstances
1.1.2.2 Relative
1.1.2.2.1 general guiding principles but exceptions are allowed dependent on circumstances
1.1.2.3 Arbitrary
1.1.2.3.1 random
1.2 The Golden Rule
1.2.1 treat others as you would want to be treated
1.2.1.1 almost all religions have some variation of this
1.2.1.1.1 mutual self-interest
1.2.1.1.1.1 everyone can understand it
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 if everyone followed it, the world would be better
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 common to many faiths & non-religious stances
1.3 Autonomy
1.3.1 moral values which aren't decided by religious teachings
1.3.1.1 Pros
1.3.1.1.1 individual thought
1.3.1.1.1.1 self-determination
1.3.1.1.1.1.1 based on reason
1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 God given free will
1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 reason can be used in any situation
1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 people take a more active part in their decisions resulting in greater responsibility but more moral freedom
1.3.1.2 Cons
1.3.1.2.1 individuals have different opinions- leads to conflict
1.3.1.2.1.1 people are fallible
1.3.1.2.1.1.1 in some situations people may feel unable to make a decision
1.3.1.2.1.1.1.1 cultivates selfishness
1.3.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 lack of expertise: e.g. patient autonomy in medicine can lead to poor decisions being made due to lack of medical knowledge
1.4 Heteronomy
1.4.1 making decisions based on religious belief, authority & tradition
1.4.1.1 Pros
1.4.1.1.1 always certain of actions
1.4.1.1.1.1 everyone acts in the same way
1.4.1.1.1.1.1 Scotland has been positively influenced by Christianity in law etc.
1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1 ultimate authority for morality is the will of God
1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 provides solid foundation for morality
1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 motivates people to do good (rewarded in heaven, punished in hell etc.)
1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 encourages 'selflessness'
1.4.1.2 Cons
1.4.1.2.1 doesn't leave room for individual thought
1.4.1.2.1.1 there can't be a rule for every moral situation
1.4.1.2.1.1.1 people can follow rules blindly
1.4.1.2.1.1.1.1 doesn't examine consequences
1.5 Utilitarianism
1.5.1 greatest good for the greatest number
1.5.2 Bentham's Method
1.5.2.1 humans controlled by two things: pleasure & pain
1.5.2.1.1 therefore people should act in a way that brings the greatest amount of pleasure or the least amount of pain for the majority
1.5.2.1.1.1 must measure an action by the: duration, intensity & reach of the pleasure/pain
1.5.2.1.1.1.1 an example of Act Utilitarianism: no universal laws
1.5.2.1.1.1.2 hedonistic calculus
1.5.2.1.1.2 personal feelings of person making decision should not count - must be objective
1.5.3 John Stuart Mill
1.5.3.1 because humans know from experience what causes pleasure/pain we can come up with general moral principles that should be adhered to the majority of the time
1.5.3.1.1 rule utilitarianism
1.5.3.1.2 higher pleasure (education, music etc.)
1.5.3.1.2.1 lower pleasure (eating etc.)
1.5.3.1.2.1.1 it is more important to have higher pleasures for the majority than to have lower pleasures
1.5.4 types
1.5.4.1 Act: outcome of actions, situation
1.5.4.1.1 Rule: some rules always produce the greatest good for the greatest number, sticking rigidly to this = strong utilitarianism, being flexible = weak utilitarianism
1.5.5 Preference Utilitarianism: taking into account what the majority want rather than what is best for them
1.5.5.1 Motive Utilitarianism: is an action good if the outcome is good for the majority but it was done with the wrong intentions
1.5.6 consequential ethics
1.5.7 Modern Utilitarianism
1.5.7.1 Peter Singer
1.5.7.1.1 'best consequences' should be understood as meaning, what furthers the interests of those affected rather than merely what increases pleasure/reduces pain
1.5.8 criticisms
1.5.8.1 can never accurately predict outcomes
1.5.8.1.1 who decides what happiness is?
1.5.8.1.1.1 what can you base someone's 'best interest' on?
1.5.8.1.1.1.1 risk of harming the minority
1.5.9 Gender
1.5.9.1 happiness of everyone is of equal value
1.5.9.1.1 individual is the best judge of their own happiness therefore everyone should be able to make their own choices
1.5.9.1.1.1 Mill argued for social & economic equality for women & said that marriage was an equal partnership
1.5.9.1.1.1.1 concerned with the majority, regardless of gender
1.5.9.1.1.1.1.1 women have the potential to contribute to society & should be given equal opportunity to do so as it will benefit the majority
1.6 Divine Command Theory
1.6.1 God is all powerful & all-good, anything God commands must be obeyed
1.6.1.1 consistent approach to morality
1.6.1.1.1 based on moral code of religion, scripture, religious leaders
1.6.1.1.1.1 appears to based on the whims of God, which would make the actions of someone following DCT arbitrary
1.6.1.1.1.1.1 however, those following DCT would disagree as they would believe that God does everything for a reason
1.6.2 Intelligent Responses
1.6.2.1 cross checking commands, refers to holy books etc.
1.6.2.1.1 for religious people the Euthyphro dilemma has a straightforward answer: something is good because God commands it, but God only commands that which is good
1.6.2.1.1.1 intelligent responses should eliminate the risk of people following blindly
1.7 Kantian Ethics
1.7.1 autonomous value system based on human reason
1.7.1.1 what matters is the intention, not the outcome/consequence
1.7.2 Good Will
1.7.2.1 good intentions
1.7.2.1.1 an action can' be good without 'good will'
1.7.3 Duty
1.7.3.1 always acting in a good way if doing duty
1.7.3.1.1 no matter what you feel you should do you must do your duty
1.7.3.1.1.1 duty is deduced with reason
1.7.4 The Categorical Imperative
1.7.4.1 compulsory moral laws which everyone must follow
1.7.4.1.1 should be universally applicable (every situation)
1.7.4.1.1.1 universal maxim: an established principle which should apply to everyone
1.7.4.1.1.1.1 e.g. if you don't want to be killed, don't kill people
1.7.5 criticisms
1.7.5.1 too abstract & remote from real life
1.7.5.1.1 reason not emotions, disregards attachment to family etc. when making moral decisions
1.7.6 Gender
1.7.6.1 everyone should be treated with dignity
1.7.6.1.1 it will never be a man's duty in modern Britain to discriminate against a women
1.7.6.1.1.1 Kant states to to use people for your own end (respect of persons)
1.7.6.1.1.1.1 Kant against objectification because humans are deserving of dignity and objectification takes away from their humanity as a consequence
2 Gender
2.1 Developing World
2.1.1 Convention on Ending all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW0
2.1.1.1 international bill of rights for women
2.1.1.1.1 stop violence against women
2.1.1.1.1.1 promote the education of girls
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 improve healthcare
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 ensure women have full legal rights
2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 improve lives of women at work
2.1.2 The Beijing Platform for Action
2.1.2.1 women's rights are human rights
2.1.2.1.1 seeking to promote & protect the full employment of all human rights and the fundamental freedom of all women throughout their life cycle
2.1.2.1.1.1 women's empowerment
2.1.2.1.1.1.1 economic independence
2.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 ensure equal access to women to productive resources, opportunities & public services
2.1.3 UN Women
2.1.3.1 support inter-governmental bodies in the formulation of policies, global standards & norms
2.1.3.1.1 to help member states implement these standards, standing ready to provide suitable technical and financial support to those countries that request it& to forge effective partnerships with civil society
2.1.3.1.1.1 to hold the UN system accountable for its own commitments on gender equality, including regular monitoring of system wide progress
2.1.3.1.1.1.1 The United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women
2.1.3.2 United Nations Development Fund for Women
2.1.3.2.1 reducing women's poverty and exclusion
2.1.3.2.1.1 ending violence against women
2.1.3.2.1.1.1 reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS among women and girls
2.1.3.2.1.1.1.1 supporting women's leadership in governance and post-conflict construction
2.1.3.2.1.1.1.1.1 provides financial and technical assistance to innovative approaches aimed at fostering women's empowerment and gender equality
2.1.4 Education
2.1.4.1 illiterate women have much larger families
2.1.4.1.1 64% of the world's illiterate adults are women
2.1.4.1.1.1 school fees, when only 1 child's education can be afforded the male child is usually chosen
2.1.4.1.1.1.1 Education Enables:
2.1.4.1.1.1.1.1 employment
2.1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1 economic independence
2.1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 voice in politics
2.1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 afford healthcare
2.1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 more aware of health risks (STD's etc.)
2.1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 allows them to make their own decisions about what they want to do
2.1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 no need for early marriage
2.1.4.1.1.1.2 child mortality rates are higher among illiterate mothers
2.1.5 Health
2.1.5.1 unable to see a doctor in some countries due to it being culturally unacceptable for a women to be treated by a male doctor but poor education for girls leads to lack of female doctors
2.1.5.1.1 99% of maternal deaths during or soon after childbirth occur in the developing world
2.1.5.1.1.1 early marriage & early pregnancy
2.1.5.1.1.1.1 vulnerability to HIV epidemic
2.1.5.1.1.1.1.1 lack of education, lack basic knowledge of how to stay healthy
2.1.5.1.1.1.1.1.1 cost of treatment
2.1.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 poor water
2.1.6 Influence
2.1.6.1 raise children & look after domestic situation
2.1.6.1.1 do 2/3 of the world's work but receive only 10% of the world's income
2.1.6.1.1.1 little economic independence
2.1.6.1.1.1.1 unable to take an active part in politics, lack of education & too busy in traditional roles
2.1.6.1.1.1.1.1 in sub-Saharan Africa, 80% of basic foodstuffs is produced by women
2.1.6.1.1.1.1.1.1 key to keeping families & communities together
2.1.6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 teach their children survival
2.1.6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 can protest & campaign for women's rights
2.1.6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 their workload makes them vital, gives them a legitimate voice
2.1.6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 influence their husbands
2.1.7 Exploitation
2.1.7.1 domestic abuse, rape, child marriages, and female genital mutilation
2.1.7.1.1 48 rapes per hour in the Congo
2.1.7.1.1.1 inequality in healthcare, education, employment, voice
2.1.7.1.1.1.1 war discourages girls from attending school because it is unsafe to leave the house
2.1.7.1.1.1.1.1 in the absence of parents adolescent girls take over the household
2.1.7.1.1.1.1.1.1 Human Trafficking
2.1.7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 forced into prostitution
2.1.7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 alarmingly common in Asian countries
2.1.7.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 infanticide, female babies often killed due to male preference
2.1.8 Millennium Development Goals
2.1.8.1 1) eradicate extreme poverty & hunger
2.1.8.1.1 2) achieve universal primary education
2.1.8.1.1.1 3) promote gender equality & empower women
2.1.8.1.1.1.1 4) reduce child mortality
2.1.8.1.1.1.1.1 5) improve maternal health
2.1.8.1.1.1.1.1.1 6) combat HIV/AIDs Malaria & other diseases
2.1.8.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 7) ensure environmental sustainability
2.1.8.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 8) global partnership for development
2.1.8.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 31% of the population in the developing world uses the internet
2.1.8.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 over 2.1illion people have gained access to improved water supplies
2.1.8.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 mortality rates from malaria have fallen
2.1.8.1.1.1.1.1.2 mortality declined by almost half
2.1.8.1.1.1.1.2 dropped by 41% in under 5's
2.1.8.1.1.1.2 women in parliaments worldwide is now at 20%
2.1.8.1.1.2 no. of children out of school has halved
2.1.8.1.2 worldwide percentage of undernourished people has fallen 7%
2.1.9 Human Trafficking
2.1.9.1 the fastest growing criminal industry
2.1.9.1.1 women and girls make up 98% of the victims trafficked for sexual exploitation
2.1.9.1.1.1 80% of those trafficked into the UK are trafficked for sexual exploitation
2.1.9.1.1.1.1 there are more individuals in slavery today than at the height of the trans-Atlantic slave trade
2.2 United Kingdom
2.2.1 Stereotyping
2.2.1.1 the media is meant to represent an accurate picture of society
2.2.1.1.1 radio-management is largely male dominated
2.2.1.1.1.1 radio1 has a high proportion of female listeners yet the majority of DJ's are men
2.2.1.1.1.1.1 TV management is male dominated
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 women given prominence in soaps
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 newspapers owned & run by men
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 page 3
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 women have money so advertisers target women
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 'if it wasn't bought it wouldn't be printed'
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.2 both genders used to sell item in TV advertising
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.2.1 abundance of pornographic material on the internet objectifies women
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 high usage among young males, affecting their perception of women?
2.2.1.2 maternal, housekeeping, aesthetic
2.2.1.3 society is demanding more equal representation
2.2.2 Equal Opportunites
2.2.2.1 Equality Act 2010
2.2.2.1.1 entitles a women doing equal work to a man in the same employment to equality in pay & other terms & conditions
2.2.2.1.1.1 entitled to select her own comparator
2.2.2.2 Sex and Power Scotland 2011
2.2.2.2.1 highlighted areas where women were 'missing' - managerial roles, CEO's etc.
2.2.3 Religion
2.2.3.1 Christianity
2.2.3.1.1 Traditional Roles
2.2.3.1.1.1 Liberal
2.2.3.1.1.1.1 writers of the Bible were products of their time
2.2.4 Feminism
2.2.5 Domestic Violence

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