Critical Thinking Unit 1- Language of Reasoning

Henry Cookson
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

AS Levels AS OCR Critical Thinking (Unit One - Introduction to Critical Thinking) Mind Map on Critical Thinking Unit 1- Language of Reasoning, created by Henry Cookson on 05/22/2014.

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Henry Cookson
Created by Henry Cookson over 5 years ago
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Critical Thinking Unit 1- Language of Reasoning
1 INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL THINKING
2 AN ARGUMENT
2.1 An argument is an attempt to persuade an individual to accept a conculsion
2.2 The most basic argument will feature a conclusion and a reason to support the concultion
2.2.1 EXAMPLE: "Travelling by train is very expensive (reason). You should get the bus (conclusion).
3 IDENTIFYING REASONS AND CONCLUSIONS
3.1 Reasons
3.1.1 because...
3.1.2 such as...
3.1.3 due to...
3.1.4 since...
3.2 Conclusions
3.2.1 therefore...
3.2.2 so...
3.2.3 consequently...
3.2.4 thus...
3.2.5 it follows that...
3.3 NOTE: Not all elements include with these indicators.
4 COUNTER ARGUMENTS AND COUNTER-ASSERTIONS
4.1 Counter Aurguments
4.1.1 An argument which goes against the conclusion of the main argument
4.1.1.1 Usually used to dismiss the counter argument and further support their own argument
4.1.2 EXAMPLE: If a main conclusion is "Money should be invested in protecting pandas." A counter argument could be "...Money should not be spent protecting pandas (counter conclusion) as they are a lost cause and will inevitably become extinct (counter reason).
4.2 Counter Assertions
4.2.1 A reason which would support a conclusion that is opposed to the writers own main conclusion
4.2.2 Won't include a counter conclusion like a counter argument
4.2.3 EXAMPLE: "It is commonly thought that..." then provide a reason against this counter-assertion
5 HYPOTHETICAL REASONING
5.1 A predictive element to support a conclusion
5.1.1 Known as "hypothetical claims"
5.2 EXAMPLE: "If it rains today, we will get wet (hypothetical reason). The children hate getting wet (Reason), so we should stay at home (conclusion).
6 ASSUMPTIONS
6.1 An unstated reason which would need to be accepted to accept the conclusion
6.2 EXAMPLE: "The office has been forced open (reason 1). Ethan has not turned up this morning (reason 2). *THERE WAS MONEY IN THE SAFE (ASSUMPTION)* Ethan stole the money (conclusion).
7 ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN REASONS AND CONCLUSIONS
7.1 Is the reason relevant the conclusion?
7.2 Does the reason make a difference to the conclusion?
7.3 Would other evidence (not in the argument) make a difference to the conclusion?
8 EVIDENCE AND EXAMPLES
8.1 Evidence is information used to support a reason which then supports a conclusion
8.1.1 Statistics
8.1.2 Factual claims
8.1.3 Images
8.1.4 Personal observations
8.1.5 Statements from sources
8.2 Examples are specific forms of evidence that can develop a reason and support a conclusion
8.2.1 "Such as..."
8.3 Evaluating evidence
8.3.1 Is the evidence representative?
8.3.2 Is the evidence directly relevant?
8.3.3 Is the evidence ambiguous?

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