2.1 An argument is an attempt to persuade an
individual to accept a conculsion
2.2 The most basic argument will feature a
conclusion and a reason to support the
2.2.1 EXAMPLE: "Travelling by train is very
expensive (reason). You should get the bus
3 IDENTIFYING REASONS AND CONCLUSIONS
3.1.2 such as...
3.1.3 due to...
3.2.5 it follows that...
3.3 NOTE: Not all elements include
with these indicators.
4 COUNTER ARGUMENTS AND COUNTER-ASSERTIONS
4.1 Counter Aurguments
4.1.1 An argument which goes against the conclusion of the main argument
126.96.36.199 Usually used to dismiss the counter argument
and further support their own argument
4.1.2 EXAMPLE: If a main conclusion is "Money should be invested in
protecting pandas." A counter argument could be "...Money should
not be spent protecting pandas (counter conclusion) as they are a
lost cause and will inevitably become extinct (counter reason).
4.2 Counter Assertions
4.2.1 A reason which would support a conclusion that is
opposed to the writers own main conclusion
4.2.2 Won't include a counter conclusion like
a counter argument
4.2.3 EXAMPLE: "It is commonly thought that..." then provide
a reason against this counter-assertion
5 HYPOTHETICAL REASONING
5.1 A predictive element to support a conclusion
5.1.1 Known as "hypothetical claims"
5.2 EXAMPLE: "If it rains today, we will get wet (hypothetical
reason). The children hate getting wet (Reason), so we
should stay at home (conclusion).
6.1 An unstated reason which would
need to be accepted to accept the
6.2 EXAMPLE: "The office has been forced open
(reason 1). Ethan has not turned up this
morning (reason 2). *THERE WAS MONEY IN
THE SAFE (ASSUMPTION)* Ethan stole the
7 ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN REASONS AND CONCLUSIONS
7.1 Is the reason relevant the conclusion?
7.2 Does the reason make a difference to the conclusion?
7.3 Would other evidence (not in the
argument) make a difference to the
8 EVIDENCE AND EXAMPLES
8.1 Evidence is information used to support a
reason which then supports a conclusion
8.1.2 Factual claims
8.1.4 Personal observations
8.1.5 Statements from sources
8.2 Examples are specific forms of evidence that can
develop a reason and support a conclusion