Class differences in achievement

Mind Map by WhisperedWishes, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by WhisperedWishes almost 7 years ago


A-Levels Sociology (Education) Mind Map on Class differences in achievement, created by WhisperedWishes on 05/15/2013.

Resource summary

Class differences in achievement
1 Class patterns of achievement.
1.1 Working class pupils tend to achieve lower than middle class pupils.
1.1.1 Those with higher class parents are twice as likely to get 5 or more A* to C GCSEs.
1.1.2 Five times as likely to go to university.
1.2 This can be caused by either internal or external factors.
1.2.1 External: outside the school or within the home.
1.2.2 Internal: within the school and education system.
2 Cultural: class differences in norms and values, attitudes to education, speech codes, etc.
3 Material: the physical necessities of life; adequate housing, diet and income.
4 Cultural deprivation theory.
4.1 Culture: all norms, values, beliefs, skills and knowledge that a society or group regards as important.
4.1.1 Transmitted through socialisation.
4.2 Different classes socialise their children differently and this may affect their achievement.
4.3 The cultural deprivation theory states that some working class parents fail to transmit the 'right' culture (norms, values etc.) needed for educational success.
4.4 Intellectual stimulation.
4.4.1 Working class parents are less likely to give their children educational toys and activities to stimulate their thinking skills.
4.4.2 Working class parents less likely to read to their children.
4.4.3 This affects their intellectual development so they are at a disadvantage when they start school.
4.5 Speech codes.
4.5.1 The working class use the restricted speech code. Less analytic and more descriptive. Limited vocabulary. Simple sentences.
4.5.2 The middle class use the elaborated speech code. More analytic. Wide vocabulary. Complex sentences.
4.6 Working class subculture.
4.6.1 Immediate gratification. Wanting rewards straight away rather than willing to make sacrifices and working hard for future rewards.
4.6.2 Fatalism. Working class pupils don't believe that what they do will make a difference, so there's no point in trying.
4.6.3 Low value on education. Don't believe they will benefit from education, and so don't try. Middle class parents are more likely to attend parents' evenings than working class.
4.7 Criticisms.
4.7.1 Ignores material factors such as poverty.
4.7.2 Ignores school factors such as labelling.
4.7.3 Blames the victim for their failure.
5 Material deprivation.
5.1 Poor housing.
5.1.1 Overcrowding or cold, damp rooms mean pupils have nowhere quiet to do homework.
5.1.2 Being homeless or living in temporary accommodation may mean changes of school.
5.2 Poor diet.
5.2.1 Can lead to illness, absence from school and lack of concentration.
5.3 Low income.
5.3.1 Lack of educational materials (books, a computer etc.)
5.3.2 Lack of the right uniform/latest fashion items which can lead to bullying.
5.3.3 Not being able to afford university fees.
6 School factors and achievement.
6.1 Labelling.
6.1.1 The middle class are generally labelled as 'bright' and 'motivated', whereas the working class are labelled as 'bad' and 'disruptive'.
6.1.2 Middle class pupils are seen as 'ideal', and teachers prefer to teach them than working class students.
6.2 Self-fulfilling prophecy.
6.2.1 When a person is either positively or negatively labelled and the label comes true simply because it has been said. e.g. "He is stupid he will fail.", and then he fails his exams.
6.2.2 'What teachers believe, pupils achieve.'
6.2.3 However, some pupils who are negatively labelled rebel against this and try to do well simply to spite their teacher.
6.3 Streaming.
6.3.1 Streaming is an extreme form of labelling.
6.3.2 The 'bright' pupils are grouped together in the top stream, and the 'thick' ones in the bottom.
6.3.3 Douglas found that the IQ of those in the lower streams declined over time and that of those in the top streams increased.
6.3.4 Those placed in lower streams are denied the same curriculum e.g. foundation exams.
6.4 Pupil subcultures.
6.4.1 Pro-school subcultures. Often formed by those in higher streams. Work hard, attend regularly, respect teachers, enjoy school participate enthusiastically etc.
6.4.2 Anti-school subcultures. Often formed by those in lower streams. Reject the school's values and often invert them. Dislike school, disrespect teachers, flout rules,avoid schoolwork, play truant, sabotage their uniform etc.
6.5 Educational policies.
6.5.1 Marketisation policies have increased the amount of streaming.
6.5.2 Fees, school leaving age, compulsory education etc. have had an impact.
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