Beth Walton
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on Pharmacokinetics, created by Beth Walton on 05/25/2014.

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Beth Walton
Created by Beth Walton over 5 years ago
drug distribution
renal drug elimination
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1 Absorption
1.1 Transfer from site of admin to systemic circulation
1.2 Increase SA = Increased speed of A
1.3 Aq vehicle - Rapidly A
2 Elimination
2.1 Metabolism
2.1.1 Phase one Oxidation Hydroxylation Epoxide Dealkylation Deamination Reduction Hydrolysis
2.1.2 Phase Two- conjugation Sulphation Glucuronidatiom Amino Acid Acetylation Methylation
2.1.3 Phase three Cytochrome P450
2.1.4 Kinetics


  • A. -->. A(m). --> Ae(m)     Km.         K(m)
2.2 Excretion
2.3 Irreversible removal of drug from the body
2.4 Clearance
2.4.1 Total CL=Hepatic CL + Renal CL+ other CL
2.4.2 CL=QxE <90L/hr , (1.5L/min) High E drug CL=Q Low E drug CL=CLint x Fu
2.4.3 CL=Dose/AUC
2.4.4 CL=KV T1/2=ln2V/CL
2.4.5 Independent of plasma conc, dependent on efficiency First order kinetics Rate=Vmax x C / Km + C
2.4.6 Vol of plasma/blood completely cleared of drug in a given time.
2.4.7 Greater CL -> smaller AUC, shorter t1/2, same V
2.4.8 Renal CL= GFR x Fu 125mL/min
2.5 Rate of E= CLxPlasma conc.
2.5.1 Extraction ratio= rate of E/ presenting conc. Extraction Ratio= (Cart - Cven)/ Cart
2.6 Bioavailable fraction (F)
2.6.1 CL=FDose/AUC AUC only changed by absorption not by rate
2.6.2 IV: 1
2.6.3 Fraction of unchanged drug that reaches systemic circulation
2.7 Major - liver M, biliary Ex ! Kidney, urinary M&Ex
2.8 Minor - lung M, breath Ex, breast milk, skin, alimentary tract
3 Distribution
3.1 Transfer from one compartment to another
3.2 V (L)
3.2.1 Vi, Vss Vss=Vp + Vt x (Fu/Fut)
3.2.2 Vol of blood needed to account for the total amount of drug in the body Amount=Volume x Conc
3.3 One compartment model
3.3.1 Instantaneous distribution
3.3.2 V is constant
3.3.3 K=E rate constant
3.3.4 Enter text here
3.3.5 1st order Rate=Rate constant x amount Rate of e= CL x Conc
3.4 Two compartment model
3.4.1 D equilibrium not instantaneous V increases with time until D equilibrium reached
3.4.2 AUC=A/a + B/b
3.5 Central
3.6 Peripheral
3.7 CO=6L/min
3.8 Q= blood flow
3.8.1 Lungs = 10ml/min
3.8.2 Fat = 0.03ml/min
3.8.3 HBF~ 1.5L/min
3.8.4 Portal BF ~ 1.2L/min
3.8.5 Artery ~0.3L/min
3.8.6 Bile flow ~ 0.5mL/min
3.8.7 Increased by massage and excercise. A is the rate cntrolling step.
3.9 Multi compartment
4 Routes
4.1 Injections
4.1.1 Iv
4.1.2 Intra Arterial- targets specific organs
4.1.3 Spinal - drugs that don't cross the BBB. Not systemic. ABs, analgesics, antineoplastics
4.1.4 Intraperitoneal - high vascularity, large SA. Lipophilic absorbed quickly but variable. Some HFPM. Local targettng, A not complete
4.1.5 Intramuscular- High vascularity, variability between diff muscles. Deltoid 10.2 mcg/ml , GM 4.3, Vastus Leteralus 9.2
4.1.6 Avoid HFPM
4.1.7 Subcutaneous- Moderate vascularity, Q increased by heat + massage. Q is the ARL step. Limited fluid for dissolution. Local E activity; low. Mild pH
4.1.8 Intradermal - V. poor vascularity, small SA. Variable permeability. Local E activity: low. A increased by heat and hydration