1.2.1 The bonds between molecules are
very strong, so lots of energy is
needed to break them.
1.3 Insulators (except graphite).
1.3.1 Graphite is arranged in layers, and each carbon atom in graphite
has a delocalised 4th electron. This means that the delocalised
electrons are free to move throughout the structure, carrying an
1.4 When bonded atoms all share several pairs of electrons,
the structure formed could go on indefinitely as a giant
2 Simple Molecular Structure
2.1 Bonds inside of the molecule are strong.
2.1.1 Bonding to other molecules is weak.
2.2.1 Little energy is required to break the
bonds between molecules.
2.3.1 Localised outer electrons.
2.4 When atoms share just a few electrons, clusters
of atoms are made - simple molecules.
3 This occurs when non-metal particles share
electrons in order to give each other full outer
shells (i.e H20).
4 Covalent bonds are very strong. They occur
between the positive nuclei of the bonded atoms
and the negative electrons that are shared in