Special Senses

Addeana
Mind Map by Addeana, updated more than 1 year ago
Addeana
Created by Addeana over 5 years ago
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Description

About the eye and its muscles and the neurons = vision . also about hearing and the anatomy of the eras.

Resource summary

Special Senses
1 Vision
1.1 Function
1.2 Accessory Structure
1.2.1 Conjunctivita
1.2.1.1 Thin protective mucous membrane
1.2.1.2 Lines inner aspect of the eyelids and onto surface of the eyeball over sclera
1.2.2 Lacrimal Apparatus
1.2.2.1 Lacrimal Gland
1.2.2.2 Lacrimal Duct
1.2.2.3 Lacrimal Puncta
1.2.2.4 Lacrimal Sac
1.2.2.5 Inferior Lacrimal Canal
1.2.2.6 Nasolacrimal duct
1.2.2.7 Superior lacrimal canal
1.2.2.8 Tears (1ml a day)
1.2.2.8.1 Contains Lysozome
1.2.2.8.2 Protects eye
1.2.2.8.3 leans and lubricates and moistens
1.3 Eye Muscle
1.3.1 Superios Rectus
1.3.1.1 Superiorly
1.3.1.2 Medially
1.3.1.3 Rotates Medially
1.3.1.4 Occulomotor (III)
1.3.2 Medial Rectus
1.3.2.1 Medially
1.3.2.2 Occulomotor (III)
1.3.3 Superios Oblique
1.3.3.1 Inferiorly
1.3.3.2 Laterally
1.3.3.3 Rotates Laterally
1.3.3.4 Trochlear (IV)
1.3.4 Lateral Rectus
1.3.4.1 Laterally
1.3.4.2 Abducens (VI)
1.3.5 Inferior Rectus
1.3.5.1 Inferiorly
1.3.5.2 Medially
1.3.5.3 Rotates Medially
1.3.5.4 Occulomotor (III)
1.3.6 Inferior Oblique
1.3.6.1 Superiorly
1.3.6.2 Laterally
1.3.6.3 Rotates Laterally
1.3.6.4 Occulomotor (III)
1.4 Anatomy/Strucure
1.4.1 Tunics (Layers)
1.4.1.1 Fibrous Tunic
1.4.1.1.1 Cornea
1.4.1.1.1.1 Transparent
1.4.1.1.1.2 Helps focus light onto the retina
1.4.1.1.2 Sclera (White)
1.4.1.1.2.1 Shape and support
1.4.1.1.2.2 Posteriorly pierced by Optic Nerve (CNII)
1.4.1.2 Vascular Tunic
1.4.1.2.1 Choroid
1.4.1.2.1.1 melanin absorbs scattered light = maintan clear , sharp image
1.4.1.2.2 Cilliray Body
1.4.1.2.2.1 Processes = Secretes aqueos humur
1.4.1.2.2.2 muscle = alters shape of lens
1.4.1.2.3 Suspensary Ligament
1.4.1.2.3.1 attaches lens to ciliary muscle
1.4.1.2.3.2 controls tension on ligaments = alter shape of lens (accomodation)
1.4.1.2.4 Lens
1.4.1.2.4.1 Avascular
1.4.1.2.4.2 Posterior to pupil and Iris
1.4.1.2.4.3 Lens fine tunes focusing of light rays to fovea od the retina = clear vision
1.4.1.2.5 Iris
1.4.1.2.5.1 Coloured part of eye (depends on melanin)
1.4.1.2.5.2 Circular and radial smooth muscles
1.4.1.2.5.3 Function = regulate amount of light entering eye
1.4.1.2.5.4 Muscles around the iris control the size = amount of light that gets in
1.4.1.2.6 Pupil
1.4.1.2.6.1 Hole in centre of iris
1.4.1.2.6.2 Light enter in eye
1.4.1.3 Retina
1.4.1.3.1 Photoreceptors = Rods and Cones
1.4.1.3.1.1 Rods = rod shaped.Black and white vision. Shapes and movements. Around periphery of retina
1.4.1.3.1.2 Cones = cone shaped. sharp and colour vision. Densely packed in Central Fovea
1.4.1.3.2 Optic disc (where optic nerve exits eyeball)
1.4.1.3.3 Retinal Blood supply
1.4.1.3.4 Macula Lutea - centre of posterior retina
1.4.1.3.5 Fovea Centralis
1.4.1.3.5.1 Centre of Macula Lutea
1.4.1.3.5.2 Highest visual acuity/resolution
1.4.1.3.5.3 Only has cones
1.4.1.3.5.3.1 Colour and focusing
1.5 Physiology
1.5.1 Refraction
1.5.2 Accommodation
1.5.2.1 In Vascular Tunic = Suspensory ligament)
1.5.3 Pupillary Constriction
1.6 Receptors and Neurons
1.6.1 Nerve impulses
1.6.1.1 1)Leave eyeball via optic nerve
1.6.1.2 2)Pass through the optic chiasm
1.6.1.3 3)Axons now form the optic tract
1.6.1.4 4)Pass through the thalamus
1.6.1.5 5) Primary visual area
2 Hearing
2.1 Function
2.2 Anatomy
2.2.1 Tympanic Membrane
2.2.2 Round window
2.2.3 Malleus
2.2.4 Incus
2.2.5 Stapes
2.2.6 Oval window
2.2.7 Ossicles
2.2.8 Cochlea
2.2.8.1
2.2.9 Organ of Corti
2.2.10 Vestibule
2.2.11 Semicircular canals
2.2.12 Auditory tube
2.3 Physiology
2.3.1 1) Sound waves vibrate the Tympanic Membrane that is in the Inner ear cavity
2.3.2 2) Vibration of ossicles transfers and AMPLIFIES the vibratory motion to oval window
2.3.3 3) Vibrations fof oval window = pressure waves in perilymph cochlea
2.3.4 4) Pressure waves travels through perilymph --> through the Vestibular Membrane and into Endolymph (in membranous labyrinth
2.3.5 5) Pressure waves in Endolymph cause Basilar membrane to vibrate = moves hair cells = action potential (nerve impulse)
2.3.6 The nerve that carries the nerve Impulses = Vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerve ( Cochlea branch )
3 Differences when ageing
3.1 Vision
3.1.1 Lost of elasticity in lens = cannot change shape easily = decreased accomodation
3.1.2 Lost of transparency = cataracts
3.1.3 weakened circular and radial muscles = slow pupillary reactions = lower adaptation to dark areas
3.1.4 Sharp vision decreased = colour and depth perception reduced
3.1.5 Retinal damage = Macular degeneration
3.1.6 Decreased tear production = dry eyes
3.1.7 Loss of elasticity in eyelids, less adipose tissue = sunken eyes
3.2 Hearing
3.2.1 Loss of hearing
4 Sensation
4.1 Sensory Neurons oly carry information specific for their function
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