Geography Revision

Lara Coffin
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

GCSE Geography Mind Map on Geography Revision, created by Lara Coffin on 05/18/2013.

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Lara Coffin
Created by Lara Coffin over 6 years ago
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Geography Revision
1 Sustainable Development
1.1 Definition
1.1.1 Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
1.1.2 "Living for today with tomorrow in mind"
1.2 Large organisations
1.2.1 ASDA/Wal-mart
1.2.1.1 Many products are wrapped in polythene or shrink wrap
1.2.1.2 A distribution centre in Oxfordshire used to fill four skips a week
1.2.1.3 A company called Mil-tek installed a plastic bailing machine
1.2.1.4 The bails are collected once a week by a recycling company
1.2.1.5 ASDA now gets money for this and no plastic goes to landfill
1.2.2 Nokia
1.2.2.1 Over 50% of people get a new phone every year
1.2.2.2 44% of the old phones are kept in a draw and never used again
1.2.2.3 100% of phones can be recycled
1.2.2.4 They can be made into trumpet, park benches etc.
1.2.3 General Electric
1.2.3.1 Operates in many different countries
1.2.3.2 By 2012 they will reduce fresh water usage by 20%
1.2.3.3 This will save 7.4 million cubic meters of water
1.3 Rainforest extraction
1.3.1 Deforestation - to set up operations, companies have to build roads through the forests
1.3.2 Local conflicts - the locals often gain the least from projects and stand to loose the most
1.3.3 Biodiversity loss - fragmentation of natural habitats caused by pipelines can deplete species populations and sometimes companies working near protected areas don't always follow the rules
1.3.4 Soil and aquatic pollution - lots of things can go wrong when oil is mined, spills and toxic by-products are are sometimes dumped near the site, polluting the surroundings
1.3.5 Air pollution - by products or natural gas are sometimes burnt, these can cause air pollution, and can sometimes cause fires
1.3.6 Costa Rica
1.3.6.1 They are trying to develop through ecotourism
1.3.6.2 They have cleared trais through the woods
1.3.6.3 They are also developing through plant life, they have made a deal with an american company called merck, that they look for plants that can be used in medicine etc. and the Costa Ricans get a share of the money
2 Tectonic Activity
2.1 Scales
2.1.1 Mercalli scale
2.1.1.1 The mercalli scale measures how much damage is done by an earthquake
2.1.1.1.1
2.1.1.2 It is measured in a scale between 1 and 12
2.1.2 Richter scale
2.1.2.1 It measures the magnitude of an earthquake using a seismometer
2.1.2.2 It has no upper limit
2.1.2.3 It is a longarithimic scale, this means that a magnitude of 6 on the richter scale is 10 times bigger than 5 which is 100 times bigger than four
2.2 Volcanoes
2.2.1 Can be popular tourist attractions (e.g. Mount Etna in Sicily)
2.2.2 People can't afford to move sometimes
2.2.3 People may not want to leave family and friends
2.2.4 People near Mount Merapi in Indonesia believe that the spirits protect them
2.2.5 May not erupt for hundreds of years
2.2.6 Volcanic soils can be especially fertile (e.g. the lower slopes of Mount Mayon, Philippines is covered in plantations
2.2.7 In Iceland the volcanoes provide cheap geothermal energy
2.3 Earthquakes
2.3.1 People feel safer as buildings can be earthquake proof
2.3.2 Some places can be really beautiful (e.g. Malibu, California)
2.3.3 People believe the chance of an earthquake is very low
2.3.4 Can be popular tourist attractions
2.3.5 People may consider the risk acceptable because they get money from their job
2.3.6 Some people have disaster plans that tell them what to do in an emergancy
2.4 Plate boundaries
2.4.1 Constructive/Divergent
2.4.1.1 New land is created
2.4.1.2 Two plates move apart
2.4.1.3 Magma rises to fill the gap
2.4.1.4 Since magma can escape easily, it doesn't erupt with much force
2.4.1.5 As the two plates move apart, the magma comes out and new land is created
2.4.2 Distructive/Convergent
2.4.2.1 Land is destroyed
2.4.2.2 Subduction zone - when an oceanic plate meets a continental plate, the oceanic plate goes under as it is heavier and denser, as it drops down, it becomes magma, the magma then rises through the gaps causing severe folding
2.4.2.3 Very explosive
2.4.2.4 The friction can cause earthquakes
2.4.3 Conservative/Transform
2.4.3.1 Land moves past each other
2.4.3.2 No volcanoes occur
2.4.3.3 Plates moving in the same direction tend to stick and then jerk forwards sending shock waves and so causing earthquakes
2.4.3.4 No land is created or destroyed
2.5 Focus, Seismic waves, Epicentre
2.5.1 Focus - the point at which the rock moves
2.5.2 Seismic waves - they start at the focus and spread out like ripples on a lake
2.5.3 Epicentre - directly above the focus on the Earth's surface

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