Life After Death

07kgrace
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Mind Map on Life After Death, created by 07kgrace on 06/04/2014.

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07kgrace
Created by 07kgrace over 5 years ago
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Life After Death
1 Life After Death in General
1.1 For Life After Death
1.1.1 There's a form beyond the physical
1.1.2 It's a chance to fulfil human potential
1.1.3 I believe my soul will carry on
1.1.4 I've earned it
1.1.5 The bible promised me
1.1.6 Life is such a gift 75(odd) years can't be the end
1.2 Against Life After Death
1.2.1 It wouldn't be fair- why reward some but punish others
1.2.2 A 'life' after 'death' - that doesn't make sense!
1.2.3 There is no God, let alone a heaven
1.2.4 We are simply material/physical beings
1.2.5 There is no proof or evidence
2 Reincarnation
2.1 Bhagavad Gita 2, 13
2.1.1 "Just as a person casts off worn out garments and puts on others which are new, even so does the embodied soul cast off worn out bodies and takes on others that are new"
2.2 Hinduism and Sikhism NOT Buddhism
2.3 The Body will die but the Soul is eternal
2.4 Key Terms For Reincarnation
2.4.1 Karma
2.4.1.1 Good and Bad actions
2.4.1.2 A law of Moral Causation
2.4.2 Samsara
2.4.2.1 Cycle of Life and Death
2.4.3 Dharma
2.4.3.1 duty of each caste
2.4.3.2 Varnahramadharma
2.4.4 Moksha
2.4.4.1 End of the cycle of Life and Death
2.4.5 Brahman
2.4.5.1 God
2.4.6 Atman
2.4.6.1 Soul
2.4.7 May
2.4.7.1 an illusion
2.4.7.1.1 Those who see the world as it really is
2.5 Strengths and Weaknesses of Reincarnation
2.5.1 Strengths of Reincarnation
2.5.1.1 Encourages to live a moral life to achieve moral life
2.5.1.2 Gives people hope for a (better) life. No Finality to death
2.5.1.3 Second Chance after death
2.5.1.4 Explains why the body stays on earth
2.5.1.5 Regression under hypnosis
2.5.1.5.1 Yoga memory
2.5.1.5.2 The experience of people, usually children who claim to have memories of a previous life
2.5.2 Weaknesses of Reincarnation
2.5.2.1 Moral Blackmail
2.5.2.2 Regression under hypnosis
2.5.2.2.1 Set Up
2.5.2.3 No Proof
2.5.2.3.1 based on dualism
2.5.2.4 How do you enter the cycle of Samsara?
2.5.2.4.1 Souls move up from plants/animals
2.5.2.4.1.1 Where do souls come from?
2.5.2.5 Evolution from Samsara might take 1000's of years
2.5.2.5.1 Why is the population increasing?
2.5.2.6 Based on Caste system
3 Rebirth
3.1 Buddhist
3.1.1 Belief that after death your thoughts/conciousness/personality(?) will get reborn into a new body
3.2 Key Terms for Rebirth
3.2.1 Anatta
3.2.1.1 no essential self or soul
3.2.1.2 (true selfhood is an illusion)
3.2.2 Anicca
3.2.2.1 Everything including conscious life is forever changing
3.2.2.1.1 not the same as it was (ever changing)
3.2.2.1.2 Candle Analogy
3.2.3 Samsara
3.2.3.1 a Constant cycle of rebirth
3.2.3.2 not set by any God
3.2.4 Karma
3.2.4.1 Process of rebirth is governed by Karma
3.2.4.2 (good and bad actions)
3.2.5 Nirvana
3.2.5.1 Enlightenment
3.3 Ultimately, Buddists aspire to escape from Samsara by recognition of the ullusion, thus reaching enlightenment
3.4 Strengths and Weaknesses or Rebirth
3.4.1 Strenghts
3.4.1.1 A Buddhist would be responsible for whathappens in their next life
3.4.1.2 Relies on self as there is no God
3.4.1.2.1 Instead of relying on blind faith
3.4.1.3 Resolves Reincarnation of Adult Soul going to a child
3.4.1.4 No Reincarnation problem of caste
3.4.1.5 Regression under hypnosis
3.4.1.6 Doesn't rely on God
3.4.2 Weaknesses
3.4.2.1 No proof
3.4.2.2 No incentive to ethical life as the consciousness does not relate to the person
3.4.2.2.1 No guarantee of a better life
3.4.2.3 Regression under hypnosis
3.4.2.3.1 Set Up
3.4.2.4 Your soul doesn't go on as there is no soul
4 Resurrection
4.1 Resureection
4.1.1 is the promise that your soul will leave your body after you die and go onto your next life
4.1.2 is Eschatological
4.1.2.1 concerned with life after death
4.1.3 Pascals Wager
4.1.3.1 You can't know if God exists until you die. So its best to say you believe in him just in case
4.1.4 body and soul combined
4.2 Strengths and Weaknesses of Resurrection
4.2.1 Strengths
4.2.1.1 Bible
4.2.1.1.1 Resurrection came a bout so as to comfort Jews in hard times with the hope of a better next life
4.2.1.1.2 Jesus was resurrected
4.2.1.1.2.1 Testified in all four gospels
4.2.1.1.3 Valley of Dry Bones
4.2.1.1.3.1 Ezekiel37- God shows Ezekiel a valley of Dry Bones and states that he is able to "make these live again"
4.2.1.1.3.2 6th century BC
4.2.1.1.4 Sheep and the Goats Parable
4.2.1.1.5 Jesus describes heaven like a house and he's gone to prepare a room for you
4.2.1.2 Hope for the next life
4.2.1.3 Encourages people to leave a moral next life so as to avoid Hell
4.2.1.4 Shown in Islam, Judasim and Christianity
4.2.1.5 John Hick
4.2.1.5.1 Replica Body Theory
4.2.1.5.1.1 You get the same body you did on earth, logically possible so we can regognise people in heaven
4.2.2 Weaknesses
4.2.2.1 No Proof
4.2.2.1.1 No empirical evidence
4.2.2.2 No definitive version of the afterlife across religions
4.2.2.3 Definite failure for Athiests as there is no 'proof' outside of religious texts
4.2.2.4 the physical body cannot be resurrected, proof on earth
4.2.2.5 Against John Hick
4.2.2.5.1 Replica Body Theory
4.2.2.5.1.1 not factually possible due to space in heaven
4.2.2.5.1.2 How do people from years ago recognise you now, physical changes
4.2.2.5.1.3 Imperfections, do they carry on into the afterlife
5 Immortality of the Soul
5.1 Belief that the soul is a distinct and immortal entity within (dualism) which can survive the death of the body and ascend to the after life
5.2 Strengths and Weaknesses
5.2.1 Strengths
5.2.1.1 Plato
5.2.1.1.1 1.Cyclical
5.2.1.1.1.1 Everything which comes with life must go out
5.2.1.1.1.2 Cycle of Birth and Death/ Pattern of Birth and Death
5.2.1.1.2 2. Recollection
5.2.1.1.2.1 the knowledge we have is not learned but remembered
5.2.1.1.2.2 Soul exists before coming into body
5.2.1.1.2.3 everything is remembered from what the soul has learned from before
5.2.1.1.3 3. Affinity
5.2.1.1.3.1 The Soul is Simple
5.2.1.1.3.1.1 The body has an affinity with Earth
5.2.1.1.3.1.2 The Soul has an affinity with eternal realm of forms. After the body dies this is where the soul goes
5.2.1.1.4 4. Final
5.2.1.1.4.1 The Soul cannot be destroyed so it must retreat to the realms
5.2.1.2 Socrates
5.2.1.2.1 Life cannot emerge from a dead thing
5.2.1.2.2 "The soul is which renders the body living"
5.2.1.3 Descartes
5.2.1.3.1 "I think therefore I am."
5.2.1.4 The Soul joins with God at Death is comforting
5.2.1.5 Certain religious expereinces support this (Out of body)
5.2.1.6 Our thinking trancends the physical body, then immortality of the soul, makes good sense
5.2.1.7 Experiement
5.2.1.7.1 Weight before and after death (lighter)
5.2.1.8 The idea has been around for centuries
5.2.1.8.1 dualism
5.2.2 Weaknesses
5.2.2.1 Gilbert Ryle
5.2.2.1.1 The Ghost in the Machine
5.2.2.1.1.1 Ghost= Soul
5.2.2.1.1.1.1 You cannot prove it as you cannot see Souls just like you cannot see ghosts
5.2.2.1.1.2 Machine+ Body
5.2.2.2 Modern Neuroscience
5.2.2.2.1 the mind is a product of brain function, not part of soul
5.2.2.2.2 You can see brain function not soul (MRI etc)
5.2.2.3 Against Descartes
5.2.2.3.1 Descartes proved that we think, but that is different from proving our thinking exists independently
5.2.2.4 Against PLato
5.2.2.4.1 Affinity
5.2.2.4.1.1 we have to be taught somethings- even the best artists had to be taught how to hold a pencil
5.2.2.5 Western Religions
5.2.2.5.1 Muslims. Jews and Christians should reject it as it is against traditional religious teaching
5.2.2.5.2 body and soul, not soul within body
5.2.2.6 Experiment
5.2.2.6.1 Weight before and after death (lighter)
5.2.2.6.2 You cannot prove this
5.2.2.7 No proof for argument
5.2.2.7.1 despite being round for years

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