Ethnic differences in achievement

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

A-Levels Sociology (Education) Mind Map on Ethnic differences in achievement, created by WhisperedWishes on 05/19/2013.

Created by WhisperedWishes over 6 years ago
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Ethnic differences in achievement
1 Ethnic group: a group with a shared culture, identity and history.
1.1 Distinct group based on religion, geography or language.
1.2 An ethnic minority group may be of a different skin colour than the majority population, but not necessarily.
2 Ethnic differences in achievement.
2.1 Black, Pakistani and Bangladeshi pupils do worst.
2.2 Indians do best.
2.3 White pupils are very close to the national average, but this may be because they form the majority.
2.4 Amongst white and black working class pupils, girls do better than boys, however among Asians boys do better.
2.5 Working class black girls do better than working class white girls.
3 Cultural deprivation.
3.1 External factor.
3.2 Intellectual and language skills.
3.2.1 Children from low-income black families lack intellectual stimulation.
3.2.2 The language of poorer black American families is ungrammatical and disjointed.
3.2.3 Children who do not speak English at home may be held back educationally.
3.3 Attitudes, values and family structure.
3.3.1 Fatalism and immediate gratification.
3.3.2 The lack of a male role model.
3.3.3 Culture of poverty. Inadequately socialised children who fail at school, become inadequate parents and perpetuate a culture of poverty.
3.3.4 The impact of slavery. Black Caribbean culture is less resistant to racism because of slavery.
3.3.5 Asian families. Asian families take a controlling attitude towards girls.
3.4 White working class pupils.
3.4.1 Lupton (2004) studied 4 working class schools. Teachers reported poorer levels of behaviour and discipline in the white schools. Lower levels of parental support and negative attitudes of the white working class towards education.
3.4.2 Evans (2006) argues that street culture in white working class can be brutal and is brought into school resulting in anti-school subcultures.
3.5 Compensatory education.
3.5.1 Educational policy that aims to counter the effects of cultural deprivation.
3.5.2 Operation Head Start in the USA was established to compensate children for the cultural deficit they are said to suffer.
3.5.3 Sure Start in the UK aims to support the development of pre-school children in deprived areas.
3.6 Criticisms.
3.6.1 Victim-blaming. They do not underachieve because of cultural deprivation, they underachieve because of an ethnocentric curriculum.
3.6.2 Cultural exclusion. Minority ethnic group parents are at a disadvantage because they are less aware of how to negotiate the British education system.
3.6.3 Cultural domination. Compensatory education imposes the dominant white middle class culture on minority ethnic groups.
4 Material deprivation and class.

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