Section 1- Principles of Chemistry (part 1)


Cambridge IGCSE Chemistry (Section 1- Principles of Chemistry) Mind Map on Section 1- Principles of Chemistry (part 1), created by beccalaw7 on 06/06/2014.
Mind Map by beccalaw7, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by beccalaw7 about 9 years ago

Resource summary

Section 1- Principles of Chemistry (part 1)
  1. States of Matter
    1. Solid
      1. Very dense
        1. Low energy
          1. Vibrate
            1. Regular arrangement
            2. Liquid
              1. Not as dense
                1. Bigger gaps
                  1. Irregular arrangement
                    1. Higher energy
                      1. Able to move
                      2. Gas
                        1. Very low density
                          1. Random arrangement
                            1. Spread out+large gaps
                              1. High energy
                                1. Can be compressed
                                    1. Movement of Particles
                                      1. Diffusion is the movement of particles in liquids and gasses
                                        1. Diffusion happens quicker in warm liquids because the particles have more energy
                                          1. Solids don't diffuse because they are tightly packed together and so can only vibrate
                                            1. Potassium Manganate and water
                                              1. Ammonia and hydrogen chloride
                                                1. Bromine gas and air
                                                2. Atoms
                                                  1. The Nucleus
                                                    1. Protons and neutrons
                                                      1. Positive charge
                                                        1. Almost the whole mass of the atom is in the nucleus
                                                          1. Protons and electrons are the same amounts, just one is positive and one is negative
                                                          2. The Electrons
                                                            1. High energy
                                                              1. Nagatively charged
                                                                1. Very small mass
                                                                2. Atomic number= number of protons and electrons
                                                                  1. Atomic mass= number of protons+ neutrons
                                                                    1. Number of neutrons= Atomic number - Atomic mass
                                                                      1. Molecules are groups of atoms
                                                                      2. Elements, compounds and mixtures
                                                                        1. Elements consist of one type of atom only
                                                                          1. E.g Gold or Iron
                                                                          2. Compounds are made of 2 or more types of atoms chemically bonded together
                                                                            1. E.g Carbon Dioxide
                                                                            2. Mixtures are similar to compounds but are not chemically bonded, they can be separated easily
                                                                              1. E.g Air (mixture of gasses- nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide ect)
                                                                            3. Crystalisation
                                                                              1. Used to separate a soluble solid from a solution
                                                                                1. E.g You can separate rock salt from water by using filtration then evapourating the water to separate the soluble salt from water
                                                                                2. Chromatography
                                                                                  1. Helps separate inks and dyes
                                                                                    1. Can be used by forensic scientists for blood or for farmers soil
                                                                                      1. Paper Chromatography
                                                                                        1. Draw line near bottom of paper
                                                                                          1. Add dots of dyes/inks
                                                                                            1. place bottom of chromatography paper in water
                                                                                              1. when the ink stops moving up the paper it is called the solvent front
                                                                                      2. Distillation
                                                                                        1. Simple distillation is for separating solutions
                                                                                          1. Fractional distillation is for separating a mixture of liquids
                                                                                            1. Can be used to separate ink from water
                                                                                            2. Filtration
                                                                                              1. Used to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid
                                                                                                1. E.g Sand and water
                                                                                                2. The Periodic Table
                                                                                                  1. Dmitri Mendeleev- 1869
                                                                                                    1. Arranged elements in order of atomic mass
                                                                                                    2. Elements in a group have the same number of outer electrons+similar properties
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