The restless earth

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

GCSE Geography (Physical) Mind Map on The restless earth, created by jeacur on 05/20/2013.

Created by jeacur over 6 years ago
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The restless earth
1 Structure of the earth
1.1 Inner core
1.1.1 Solid (iron and nickel)
1.2 Outer core
1.2.1 Liquid (iron and nickel)
1.3 Mantle
1.3.1 The dense, mostly solid layer between the outer core and crust (plastic)
1.4 Crust
1.4.1 Continental Older, mostly 1,500,000,000 Less dense Can't sink Cannot be renewed or destroyed Mainly granite 35% surface
1.4.2 Oceanic Newer, most less than 20,000,000yrs Denser Can sink Can be renewed/destroyed Mainly basalt 60% earth's surface
2 Plate margins
2.1 Destructive
2.1.1 Subduction One sinks under another Pacific + Indo-Australian
2.1.2 Collision Two continental push into each other Eurasian + African
2.2 Constructive
2.2.1 Two plates move away from each other
2.2.2 South American + African
2.3 Conservative
2.3.1 Two plates slide alongside each other
2.3.2 Pacific + North American
3 Volcanoes
3.1 Composite
3.1.1 Eruptions infrequent but often violent
3.1.2 Steep slopes and narrow base
3.1.3 Secondary cones and layers of thick lava and ash
3.1.4 Destructive plate boundaries
3.2 Shield
3.2.1 Low, rounded peak
3.2.2 Wide base and gentle slopes
3.2.3 Layers of runny lava, little ash
3.2.4 Constructive plate boundaries
3.2.5 Eruptions frequent and not violent
4 Supervolcanoes
4.1 A mega colossal volcano that erupts at least 1000km3 of material. (Mt. St. Helens only erupted 1Km3)
4.2 Large depressions called calderas often marked by a rim of higher land around the edges
4.3 1) Rising magma cannot escape and a large bulge appears on the surface
4.3.1 2) Cracks appear in the surface and gas and ash erupt from the magma chamber 3) the magma chamber collapses, forming a depression called a caldera
4.4 Yellowstone effects
4.4.1 National Destroy 10,000Km2 of land Kill 87,000 people 15cm of ash would cover buildings within 1000Km and 1 in 3 die Ash would affect transport, electricity, water and farming Lahars possible
4.4.2 International UK would receive ash 5 days later Global climates would change, crops would fail and subsequently many people would die

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