Differences Between Intrusive and Extrusive Rocks

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Undergraduate Geology - Part 2 (Igneous Processes and Products) Note on Differences Between Intrusive and Extrusive Rocks, created by siobhan.quirk on 05/21/2013.

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Chilled Margin the edge of the igneous intrusion, which is closest to the cold country rock, cools more rapidly than the rest of the intrusion and forms the chilled margin the chilled margin may only be a few centimentres to several metres wide the chilled margin has fine grained crystals because it cooled quickly Baked Margin the area of country rock adjacent to a minor intrusion gets altered by the heat from the intrusion and is called the baked margin the rocks are recrystallised by the heat, so they have been contact metamorphosed the rocks in the baked margin have a sugary texture and and become harder and lighter in texture the bakend margin may be a few centimetres to a few metres wide, depending on the size of the intrusion. The larger the intrusion, the wider the baked margin Metamorphic AureoleBatholiths, as major intrusions, heat a much larger zone of country rock so that a metamorphic aureole can be hundreds of metres to several kilometres wide. The rocks in the aureole are altered by contact metamorphism to produce new metamorphic rocks. If the batholith is intruded into a country rock of shale, then a clear sequence of changes takes place: closest to the intrusion, where the heat is greatest for longer, the rocks will be totally recrystallised to form hornfels further away from the intrusion the rocks will be recrystallised to form a rock containing the metamorphic mineral andalusite. in the zone just inside the metamorphic aureole, where the heat was least, recrystallisation is partial so that a spotted rock forms. The width of a metamorphic aureole will depend on the size and temperature of the intrusion, the dip of the sides of the intrusion and the composition of the surrounding rocksHow would you distinguish intrusive sills from extrusive lava flows?Sills have: two chilled margins due to contact with cool country rock, both above and below two baked margins, both above and below, because the sill heats all the country rock around it xenoliths from rocks above and below the sill as the sill rips up material may show differentiation of magma if the sill is thick and cools slowly medium average crystal size as hypabyssal and cooled slowly dolerite as the most common rock rare vesicles no fragments in the sill of overlying rocks a regular upper surface no weathering at upper surface Lava flows have: only one clear chilled margin below, while the top may be chilled or made of scoria one baked margin below the lava flow no xenoliths from above the flow but possibly some below may have flow banding ot phenocrysts, may be aligned parallel to the direction of flow fine average crystal grain size as volcanic and cooled rapidly basalt as the most common rock vesicles common in the upper part, may become amygdales when infilled by minerals lava fragments in overlying sedimentary rocks as a result of erosion and deposition irregular upper surface made up of scoria or rubble a reddened surface or even an ancient soil if the flow was chemically weathered.

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