LSAT Prep Lecture II Intro to Arguments: Advanced Labeling

Note by Elder, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by Elder almost 6 years ago


Note on LSAT Prep Lecture II Intro to Arguments: Advanced Labeling, created by Elder on 10/12/2014.

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The bottom three boxes introduce the terminology for this lesson.  For some initial clarification, "context" can either mean (1) "background information", or (2) "other's/another's argument(s)."  Context may have its on premise & conclusion embedded within the reading aside from the author's real argument (or purpose). 

The Argument All Jedi use the force.  Luke is a Jedi.  Therefore, Luke uses the Force. 

The (Expanded) Argument All Jedi use the force.  Luke is a Jedi.  Therefore, Luke uses the Force.  All force users are powerful.  Luke is powerful.

Explanation for “The Argument” During the first argument only statements 1, 2 & 3 existed.  In such a case, 1 &2 supported 3, which made 3 the conclusion. Explanation for “The (Expanded) Argument” New info changes the dynamics (internal structure).  The overall focus changes from “Luke uses the Force” to “Luke is powerful.”  Sentence 3 gets “demoted” from a conclusion to a sub-conclusion aka intermediate conclusion (term used by LSAT) aka major premise.  It becomes a part of the package that supports Sentence 5, the major conclusion.

All 3 words (For, Since, introduce a Premise where a Conclusion is apart of the same sentence.Examples

Context is either background information OR someone else's argument.

For clarification, "But, Although, However" are words that indicate to the reader that there is either a turn in the argument OR the material will switch to an argument.Example for I: Context All Jedi are However, Tom, who is not a Jedi, is powerful. Therefore, one does not have to be a Jedi to be powerful. Explanation for I: ContextSentence 1 is simply context, having no real impact on on the overall passage.  The word "However" indicates to the reader that the important information will come thereafter (aka the passage takes a turn or switched to what you need to be persuaded into).Example for II: (Other's Arguments)

Explanation for II: (Other's Arguments)Sentence 1 is context, and simply reports on a general thought without consequence on the remaining statements.  Sentence 2 is the premise and uses "But" to flag the reader of the author's forthcoming argument (that he wishes to "separate" from the other argument).  Sentence 3 is the info that the author wants to illustrate.  Thus, 1 is of no real value and 2 & 3 are the argument (consisting of the premise & conclusion).

three areas of advaced labeling

Sub-conclusions & major premises

For, Since, Because

context v. argument indicators

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