PASSIVE STRUCTURE

Andrea Lladro
Note by Andrea Lladro, updated more than 1 year ago
Andrea Lladro
Created by Andrea Lladro over 2 years ago
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PASSIVE

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PASSIVE REPORTING VERBS 1 We can form passive reporting structures like this: - Subject + be +  past participle of reporting verb + to infinitive   This structure can be used with present, past or future reference. - They are said to be the best surfers in the world - The ship's captain was presumed to have died in battle  (It was presumed then) or - The ship's captain is presumed to have died in battle  (It's presumed now of a past event) - The new energy source is expected to be cleaner.   This passive construction is often used with these verbs: allege, assume, believe, consider, estimate, expect, find, know, prove, report, say, show, think, understand.   We can use the passive voice to report actions and events. We use reporting verbs in the passive when: - We don't know or cannot verify the source or agent of the information Ex. No injuries have been reported. - We assume the reader or listener is not interested in who the agent or source is. Ex. They are believed to have started exploring the cave at four in the morning - The agent or source is obvious from the context Ex. 100 people are known to have been arrested. - When you want someone to remain anonymous.  Ex. You've been reported to be driving without a licence.    PASSIVE REPORTING VERBS 2 We can also form passive reporting structures like this: - It be + past participle of reporting verb +  (that) clause It is known (that) ancient people climbed mountains These verbs are often used with this construction: agree, allege, announce, assume, believe, claim, consider, decide, estimate, expect, fear, hope, know, presume, report, say, suggest, thimk, understand.    This construction can be also used with present, past or future reference.   - It is said that they are the best surfers in the world - It was presumed that the ship's captain died in the battle. - It is expected that the new energy source will be cleaner   Notice the use of "there": It is known that there are many more dangerous sports.  There are known to be many more dangerous sports.                                                                           

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1. WHEN USE  PASSIVE STRUCTURES ( 1 Y 2): → Don’t know or cannot verify the source or the agent (No injuries have been reported) → Reader or listener not interested in the source or agent (They’re believed to have started exploring the cave) → The agent or source is obvious (100 people have been arrested) → Remain anonymous (You’ve been reported to be driving without a licence)   2. STRUCTURES OF THE PASSIVE: * P.P. Personal passive: SUBJ. + PASSIVE VERB + TO + INF. They + are said + to be…. the best surfers There + are known + to be… many more dangerous sports. ** I.P. Impersonal passive: IT + PASSIVE VERB + (THAT) CLAUSE It + is said + that… they are the best surfers It + is known + that… there are many more dangerous sports   3. WITH WHICH VERBS: * P.P. Allege, assume, believe, consider, estimate, expect, find, know, prove, report, say, show, think, understand. **I.P. Agree, allege, announce, assume, believe, claim, consider, decide, estimate, expect, fear, hope, know, presume, report, say, suggest, think, understand.   4. HOW WE USE PASSIVE STRUCTURES: PRESENT *P.P. They are said to be the best surfers **I.P. It is said that they are the best surfers PAST: * P.P. The ship's captain was presumed to have died in battle (It was presumed then) or The ship's captain is presumed to have died in battle (It's presumed now of a past event) * I.P. It is/was presumed that the ship’s captain died in the battle. FUTURE: * P.P. The new energy source is expected to be cleaner. * I.P. It is expected that the new energy source will be cleaner.  

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Qué son las pasivas impersonales en inglés? Son tipo de pasiva en inglés que no tiene equivalente en español. La usamos con determinados verbos como say, think, believe, know, rumour… El significado es el de referirnos a lo que la gente en general dice, piensa, cree, sabe, rumorea, etc. También report puede seguir esta estructura para referirnos a lo que dicen las noticias sobre algo. En español lo habitual es que utilizáramos fórmulas como “se sabe”, “se dice”, “se piensa”, etc. A la hora de formar este tipo de oraciones, nos encontramos con dos formas de hacerlo. Veamos cuáles.   Pasivas impersonales en inglés con “It is…” En primer lugar, nos encontramos con la forma más sencilla de realizar estas oraciones pasivas impersonales en inglés. Para ello, lo que debemos hacer es empezar con It + primer verbo en pasiva. Recordemos que, como explicamos en nuestra anterior entrada de pasivas, la pasiva se forma con el verbo to be en el mismo tiempo que el verbo activo seguido por el participio del verbo principal. Sin embargo, en estas oraciones pasivas impersonales en inglés, lo normal es que sea el presente simple. People know that football players earn a lot of money.   Como vemos, aquí hablamos de algo que la gente sabe con carácter general. Para ponerlo en pasiva, debemos empezar la frase con “It“; a continuación, usamos el verbo be en el presente simple (mismo tiempo que know en la oración activa) seguido por el verbo principal, know, en participio; por último, añadimos un that (opcional) y terminamos la frase de la misma forma. ¿Cómo quedaría? It is known that football players earn a lot of money.   Pongamos otro ejemplo: People say that James sings very well. It is said that James sings very well.   Pasivas impersonales en inglés con infinitivo Hay una segunda forma de transformar este tipo de frases en pasivas impersonales en inglés. Es algo más complicada, así que vamos a dar los pasos para hacerla. Cojamos la misma frase del epígrafe anterior: People know that football players earn a lot of money. – Empezamos poniendo el sujeto del segundo verbo como sujeto de la oración pasiva. En este ejemplo, el segundo verbo es earn, con lo que el sujeto sería football players. – Continuamos poniendo el primer verbo en pasiva, de la misma forma que en el epígrafe anterior. En este caso, know pasaría a are known. – Terminamos poniendo el segundo verbo en: a) infinitivo con to si era presente simple; b) to be + ing si era presente continuo; c) to have + participio si era pasado simple o presente perfecto; d) to have been + ing si era pasado continuo o presente perfecto continuo; e) to be + ing o to be going to + infinitivo si es un tiempo de futuro (no es muy frecuente esta estructura para el futuro, sin embargo).   Como esto puede resultar un poco confuso, veamos ejemplos. Presente simple: People know that football players earn a lot of money. Football players are known to earn a lot of money.   Presente continuo: People believe that the President is lying. The President is believed to be lying.   Tiempo de pasado: People say that our team played very well last night. Our team is said to have played very well last night.   Tiempo de pasado en forma continua: People think that our friend was studying last night. Our friend is thought to have been studying last night.   Tiempo de futuro: People rumour that the actress will be getting married soon. The actress is rumoured to (be going to) be getting married soon.   Fallos típicos en las pasivas impersonales en inglés – Si la gente dice, piensa o cree ahora algo sobre el pasado, el primer verbo tiene que ir en presente y no en pasado. Por ejemplo: People say that our team played very well last night. En esta frase, la acción de decir se produce ahora. Por tanto, por mucho que lo demás se refiera al pasado, habría que decir “It is said” y no “It was said” o “Our team is said” y no “Our team was said“. – Como hay un cambio de sujeto, hay que estar muy pendiente a si el nuevo sujeto sigue siendo singular o plural o si cambia. Por ejemplo: People think that our teachers are very good pasaría a Our teachers are thought to be very good; en cambio, People think that our teacher is very good sería Our teacher is said to be very good. – Después del to sólo podemos poner infinitivo o have con participio. Esto es, no es posible poner un ing, un has o un had. En el ejemplo de antes, Our team is said to have played very well last night, no diríamos to had pese a referirnos al pasado.

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Se llega a la conclusión - You arrive at the conclusion/You come to the conclusion Se vende - It is sold/They sell Se cree que - It is believe that/People believe that Se piensa que - It is thought that/People think that Generalmente el se español se traduce en dos maneras: con el participio pasado (se vende = es vendido) o también por you.  Por ejemplo: Si se quiere ir a ese lugar, se tiene que pagar $50 = If you want (one wants) to go to that place, you have (one has) to pay $50 Siempre usamos el you pero muy muy formalmente usamos one porque técnicamente no tenemos que estar hablando sólo a ti pero a muchas personas, pero en inglés usamos you.  

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