STEPS IN THE PROCESS OF PLANNING: 1. ESTABLISHING THE VERIFIABLE GOALS OR SET OF GOALS TO BE ACHIEVED: 1. The first step in the process of planning is to determine the enterprise objects, most often the one set by the top managers,usually after the scrutiny of a number of multiple objectives. 2. The type of goals slected will depend on a number of factors such as THE BASIC MISSION of the company the values its managers hold, and the actual and the potential abilities of the organization. 3.THe lues and the beliefs held by the top men are very important in the selection of the goals. 2.ESTABLISHING THE PLANNING PREMISES: It includes the assumptions about the on the basis of the plan These are extremely important factors that govern the environment of the work. It can include establishment of conomic condition, portable competitive behavour, etc A) INTERNAL AND THE EXTERNAL PREMISES: Premises may exist within or outside the boundary of the organizations. Internal premises include: Sales forecast, policiies and the programs of the organozation, capital investment, etc. Other resources being the resource management and investment, ability of the organization in terms of the machines, money and the behaviour... B) TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE PREMISES: Frankly speaking tangible are those which are curled up!! KIdiing!! Tangible premises are the premises that can be quantitatively measured. Population growth, industry marketing, investment, resources on an org are all tangible. ociological factors, business and economic env, attitudes, stablility are intangible ones. C)CONTROLLABLE AND NON- CONTROLLABLE PREMISES: the mere presence of non controllable factors force and org to revise the plans periodically. THe plans are to be revised in accordance to the nned of current development. Some examples of the uncontrollable factors are : war, calamitiies, national emergencies... 3)DECIDING THE PLANNING PERIOD: There is always some logic involved in the selection of a particular me-range for the planning. The factors are 1)LEAD TIME IN DEVELOPMENTand COMMERCIALIZATION of a new product 2)TIME TO RECOVER THE CAPITAL INVESTMENTS 3) LENGTH OF COMMITMENTS. 4) FINDING ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION: There is always a strategy wich corresponds to " this when the other fails" in the process of planning. THere are very seldom cases when there are no alternatives to a plan. 5) EVALUATING AND SELECTING A COURSE OF ACTION: Having selected the alternative cours of action, evaluating them in the light of premises and goals and selecting the best course od courses of action is done with the help of operational research. 6)DEVELOPING THE DERIVATIVE PLANS: aONce the planns are made, ot has to be translated into day-to-day operations of the organizations. Middle and the lower level managers have to make suitable plans to bring the developed plan to execution. 7)ESTABLISHING AND DEPLOYING THE ACTION PLANS: The action plan identifies particular activities necessary for purpose and specifying what, when and how each of them are to be performed. 8)MEASURING AND CONTROLLING THE PROGRESS: Managers need to check the progress of their plans so that they can take whatever remedial actions they want if the plan is not working according to their objective.