Created by Michael Riben about 6 years ago
Public HealthHealth - state of complete physical, mental, and social well being and not merely in absence of disease or infirmity Health Status = condition that can be described in objective and measurable quantities and attributed to individuals and populationsPublic health - the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts of society as well as neutral description of the health status of a population as a whole
The 10 Essential Public Health Services describe the public health activities that all communities should undertake and serve as the framework for the NPHPS instruments. Public health systems should Monitor health status to identify and solve community health problems. Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community. Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues. Mobilize community partnerships and action to identify and solve health problems. Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts. Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety. Link people to needed personal health services and assure the provision of health care when otherwise unavailable. Assure competent public and personal health care workforce. Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services. Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems. The Core Public Health Functions Steering Committee developed the framework for the Essential Services in 1994. The committee included representatives from US Public Health Service agencies and other major public health organizations. For more information, see the Public Health Functions Project
Concept Model = describes the main concepts (objects) and their relationships of a domain from a certain point of view
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by theindividual or by more objective measures.
Health Status - The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by theindividual or by more objective measures.Interrelated Indicators : 1) Disease specific indicators2) mortality 3) Indicators of physical , mental, and social functioning4) Compound health measures -
Primary Activity of Health CAre and Public health health Promotion and prevention Early Detection and Follow-up Cure Care and Palliation Affecting health Care policy besides these four:1) Growing interest in Cost Containment2) Call for Quality Improvement
Nolan's Growth Model for IS development
Stage I – InitiationIn this stage, information technology is first introduced into the organization. According to Nolan’s article in 1973, computers were introduced into companies for two reasons. The first reason deals with the company reaching a size where the administrative processes cannot be accomplished without computers. Also, the success of the business justifies large investment in specialized equipment. The second reason deals with computational needs. Nolan defined the critical size of the company as the most prevalent reason for computer acquisition. Due to the unfamiliarity of personnel with the technology, users tend to take a "hands off" approach to new technology. This introductory software is simple to use and cheap to implement, which provides substantial monetary savings to the company. During this stage, the IT department receives little attention from management and work in a "carefree" atmosphere.Stage I Key points: User awareness is characterized as being "hands off". IT personnel are "specialized for technological learning". IT planning and control is not extensive. There is an emphasis on functional applications to reduce costs.
Stage II – Contagion Even though the computers are recognized as “change agents” in Stage I, Nolan acknowledged that many users become alienated by computing. Because of this, Stage II is characterized by a managerial need to explain the potential of computer applications to alienated users. This leads to the adoption of computers in a range of different areas. A problem that arises in Stage II is that project and budgetary controls are not developed. Unavoidably, this leads to a saturation of existing computer capacity and more sophisticated computer systems being obtained. System sophistication requires employing specialized professionals. Due to the shortage of qualified individuals, implementing these employees results in high salaries. The budget for computer organization rises significantly and causes concern for management. Although the price of Stage II is high, it is evident that planning and control of computer systems is necessary. Stage II Key points: There is a proliferation of applications. Users are superficially enthusiastic about using data processing. Management control is even more relaxed. There is a rapid growth of budgets. Treatment of the computer by management is primarily as just a machine. Rapid growth of computer use occurs throughout the organization's functional areas. Computer use is plagued by crisis after crisis.
Stage III – Control[edit source | editbeta]Stage III is a reaction against excessive and uncontrolled expenditures of time and money spent on computer systems, and the major problem for management is the organization of tasks for control of computer operating costs. In this stage, project management and management report systems are organized, which leads to development of programming, documentation, and operation standards. During Stage III, a shift occurs from management of computers to management of data resources. This shift is an outcome of analysis of how to increase management control and planning in expending data processing operations. Also, the shift provides flexibility in data processing that is needed in a case of management’s new controls. The major characteristic of Stage III is reconstruction of data processing operation.Stage III Key points: There is no reduction in computer use. IT division's importance to the organization is greater. Centralized controls are put in place. Applications are often incompatible or inadequate. There is use of database and communications, often with negative general management reaction. End user frustration is often the outcome.
Stage IV – IntegrationStage IV features the adoption of new technology to integrate systems that were previously separate entities. This creates data processing (IT) expenditure growth rates similar to that of Stage II. In the latter half of Stage IV, exclusive reliance on computer controls leads to inefficiencies. The inefficiencies associated with rapid growth may create another wave of problems simultaneously. This is the last stage that Nolan acknowledged in his initial proposal of the stages of growth in 1973.[Stage IV Key points: There is rise of control by the users. A larger data processing budget growth exists. There is greater demand for on-line database facilities. Data processing department now operates like a computer utility. There is formal planning and control within data processing. Users are more accountable for their applications. The use of steering committees, applications financial planning becomes important. Data processing has better management controls and set standards.
Stage V – Data administrationNolan determined that four stages were not enough to describe the proliferation of IT in an organization and added Stage V in 1979. Stage V features a new emphasis on managing corporate data rather than IT. Like the proceeding Stage VI, it is marked by the development and maturity of the new concept of data administration.Stage V Key points: Data administration is introduced. There is identification of data similarities, its usage, and its meanings within the whole organization. The applications portfolio is integrated into the organization. Data processing department now serves more as an administrator of data resources than of machines. A key difference is the use of term IT/IS rather than data processing..
Stage VI – Maturity In Stage VI, the application portfolio — tasks like orderly entry, general ledger, and material requirements planning — is completed and its structure “mirrors” the organization and information flows in the company. During this stage, tracking sales growth becomes an important aspect. On the average, 10% batch and remote job entry, 60% are dedicated to data base and data communications processing, 5% personal computing, 25% minicomputer processing. Management control systems are used the most in Stage VI (40%). There are three aspects of management control; manufacturing, marketing and financial. Manufacturing control demands forecasting — looking down the road for future needs. Marketing control strictly deals with research. Financial control, forecasts cash requirements for the future. Stage VI exercises high control, by compiling all of the information from Stages I through V. This allows the organization to function at high levels of efficiency and effectiveness. Stage VI Key points: Systems now reflect the real information needs of the organization. Greater use of data resources to develop competitive and opportunistic applications. Data processing organisation is viewed solely as a data resource function. Data processing now emphasizes data resource strategic planning. Ultimately, users and DP department jointly responsible for the use of data resources within the organization. Manager of IT system takes on the same importance in the organizational hierarchy as say the director of finance or director of HR
cascade model for system developmentRoyce's original waterfall model, the following phases are followed in order: Requirements specification Design Construction (implementation or coding) Integration Testing and debugging Installation Maintenance Thus the waterfall model maintains that one should move to a phase only when its preceding phase is completed and perfected. Various modified waterfall models (including Royce's final model), however, can include slight or major variations on this process
Business Modeling: Business model[edit source | editbeta]A business model is a framework for creating economic, social, and/or other forms of value. The term 'business model' is thus used for a broad range of informal and formal descriptions to represent core aspects of a business, including purpose, offerings, strategies, infrastructure, organizational structures, trading practices, and operational processes and policies.In the most basic sense, a business model is the method of doing business by which a company can sustain itself. That is, generate revenue. The business model spells-out how a company makes money by specifying where it is positioned in the value chain.Business process[edit source | editbeta]A business process is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers. There are three main types of business processes: Management processes, that govern the operation of a system. Typical management processes include corporate governance and strategic management. Operational processes, that constitute the core business and create the primary value stream. Typical operational processes are purchasing, manufacturing, marketing, and sales. Supporting processes, that support the core processes. Examples include accounting, recruitment, and technical support. A business process can be decomposed into several sub-processes, which have their own attributes, but also contribute to achieving the goal of the super-process. The analysis of business processes typically includes the mapping of processes and sub-processes down to activity level. A business process model is a model of one or more business processes, and defines the ways in which operations are carried out to accomplish the intended objectives of an organization. Such a model remains an abstraction and depends on the intended use of the model. It can describe the workflow or the integration between business processes. It can be constructed in multiple levels.A workflow is a depiction of a sequence of operations, declared as work of a person, of a simple or complex mechanism, of a group of persons, of an organization of staff, or of machines. Workflow may be seen as any abstraction of real work, segregated into workshare, work split or other types of ordering. For control purposes, workflow may be a view of real work under a chosen aspect.
Models of IS dev