Chemical Kinetics :D

Saravanan Sonia
Note by , created almost 6 years ago

Secondary 3 Chemistry Note on Chemical Kinetics :D, created by Saravanan Sonia on 11/14/2013.

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Saravanan Sonia
Created by Saravanan Sonia almost 6 years ago
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Chemical Kinetics

Qualitative

QualitativeEnergy Diagrams:

Activation energy (Ea): min. amt. of E required for the reactants to be converted into products

The higher the Ea, the lower the speed of reaction.

Delta H: difference in enthalphy between the products and reactants where enthalphy refers to the measure of the total energy of a thermodynamic system

If delta H (+)ve,E of product > E of reactantput net E into reactionendothermic reaction

If delta H (-)ve, E of product remove net E out of reaction exothermic reaction

Reversible Reactions (LOW Ea)

=> equilibria=> constant amount of N2, H and NH3

Conc. of products = Conc. of reactantsThus. the reaction is at equilibrium

NOTE: ALL reactions are reversible! In many cases, backward reactions is so much slower that is effectively irreversible! :D

Factors to affect reaction rates:1) Temperature    -> the higher the temp, the faster the reaction           *increase in temp increases the E available to reactants           *speed of molecules increases           *thus, Ea is reached faster2) Conc. of reactants   -> the higher the conc. of reactants, the higher the speed of reaction          *higher conc. -> more reactant molecules          * increases likelihood of energetic molecules bumping into each other          * NOT every collision results in a reaction due to insufficient E3) SA of reactant molecules    -> The higher the surface area of the reactant molecules, the faster the reactions         due to having more spaces on which reactions can occur4) Catalysts    -> work by causing the reaction to work via a new pathway with lower Ea

CHEMICAL REACTIONS RATES INCREASE BY FACTOR OF 2 FOR EVERY 10 DEGREE CELSIUS INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE!!! :D

**NOTE THAT THE DELTA E DOES NOT HAVE ANY CHANGE

Catalysts are materials that increase the rates of chemical reactions w/o being consumed

Inhibitors slow or stop reactions.... :)

PLEASE NOTE THAT INHIBITORS DO NOT INTRODUCE A NEW REACTION PATHWAY WITH HIGHER ACTIVATION ENERGY!!! INSTEAD, INHIBITORS MAY MODIFY SELECTIVITY IN ADDITION TO RATE!!!

QuantitativeAverage Reaction Rate:

; where the brackets refer to the concentration in mol/dm^3

VERY SURE THAT YOU KNOW HOW TO FIND INSTANTATANEOUS 

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