Anatomy - Chapters 1-4

Courtney Merkel
Note by Courtney Merkel, updated more than 1 year ago
Courtney Merkel
Created by Courtney Merkel over 5 years ago
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Cells, body systems, homeostasis

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Chapter 1: Body Systems Levels of Organization Atoms - smallest particleMolecules - composed of two or more atomsMacromolecules - large molecule made up of moleculesOrganelles - part of cell that performs specific functionCells - structural and functional unit of lifeTissue - group of cells performing same functionOrgan - group of tissues performing same functionOrgan systems - group of organs performing similar functionsOrganism - group of body systems working to perform homeostasis Body Systems (1st Semester) Integumentary - (skin, nails hair) regulates body temperature and sensory receptionSkeletal - (bones, ligaments, cartilage) provides support, muscle attachment, produces blood cellsMuscular - (muscle tissue) provides force to move body parts, source of heatNervous - (brain, spinal cord, nerves) detect changes in environment, cell communication Homeostasis Definition: organism's maintenance of a relatively constant internal state within set of rangesTemperature - 98.6˚F, Blood Pressure - 120/80, Blood pH - 7.4, Hydration - 60% waterComponents:Sensors and receptors: provide info about environmentSet point: what the value should beEffectors: bodily responses to alter its conditions depending on environmentNegative feedback: correction of deviation, moves in opposite directionex: thermostat set to 68, reaches 68, then shuts offPositive feedback: amplifies change occurringex: childbirth, blood clotting, a sneeze Chapter 2: Biochemistry Element and Atom Structure Element: chemical substance with only one type of atomAtom: smallest particle of an element made up of protons, neutrons and electrons Macromolecules Carbohydrates Such as sugar, starch, cellulose Made up of C, H, and O Provide energy for cell Supply materials to build cell structures Stored as energy reserves MONOMER: monosaccharide - glucose, frutose DIMER: disaccharides - sucrose, lactose POLYMERS: polysaccharides - starch, glycogen Lipids Made of C, H, and O and sometimes P Do not dissolve in water Insulation and primary energy storage Cell membrane and synthesizing fats and makes gametes Made up of a glycerol molecule and fatty acid chains TRIGLYCERIDE: 1 glycerol, 3 fatty acid chains PHOSPHOLIPID: 1 glycerol, 2 fatty acid chains STEROID: 4 carbon ring structure - cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen Protein Made of C, H, O, N, and S Structural materials, hormones, energy source Detect foreign substances, speed up chemical reactions MONOMER: amino acid POLYMER: polypeptide chain Nucleic Acid Made of C, H, O, N, and P Genetic source MONOMER: nucleotide DNA: deoxyribose with nitrogen bases A, T, G, C RNA: ribose with nitrogen bases A, U, G, C ATP: ribose with nitrogen base A and 3 phosphate groups Chapter 3: Cells Organelles Endoplasmic reticulum: Smooth: no ribosomes, contains enzymes for lipid synthesis, absorption of fat, metabolism of drugs Rough: ribosomes, site of protein synthesis, sends items to smooth ER and Golgi for processing Ribosomes: Site of protein synthesis 2 types: attached to rough ER or floating/free Made up of a protein and RNA molecule (the rRNA) Golgi apparatus: Stacks of membrane-bound sacs Takes in proteins, packages and delivers them, repackaged inside of vesicles and shipped Mitochondria: Major site of cellular respiration Contains its own DNA and can reproduce Made up of inner membrane (cristae) and outer membrane with an inner space (the matrix) Lots of mitochondria found in muscle cells which use a lot of energy Lysosomes: Tiny sacs containing enzymes that break down nutrients, foreign particles and broken organelles Peroxisomes: Tiny sacs containing enzymes that catalyze bile acids, detox hydrogen peroxide, breakdown lipids, detox alcohol Abundant in kidney and liver Cilia:Tiny hairs that assist in movement of fluids (like mucus) over tissuesFlagella:Tail-like extensions that assist in movement (ex: sperm)Vacuoles: Membrane-bound sacs formed by cell membrane that fold inward Stores macromolecules, water, toxins, and pigments Microtubules and filaments: Thin strands within cytoplasm which are important part of cytoskeleton Filaments: made of actin proteins that help provide movement like contraction Tubules: made of tubulin proteins and are thicker Nucleus: Houses genetic material and directs all cell activities Enclosed by a nuclear membrane made of lipids Has a nucleolus: small organelle made of RNA to form protein Has chromatin: loosely coiled fiber of DNA or chromosomes Cytoplasm: Contains the organelles and cytoskeleton Slightly neutral pH and serves to communicate signals The Cell Membrane Regulates the movement of substances in and out of cell and helps cells stick to other cells to form tissueIt is thin and flexible with pockets and foldings and only allows some molecules in and out (selectively permeable)STRUCTURE:Lipid bilayer - two layers of phospholipids with water-hating tails facing inward and water-loving heads outwardCholesterol - keeps fluid in cold weatherProteins and carbohydrates - cell communication Passive Transport (no energy use) DIFUSSION:- molecules or ions spread to regions from more concentrated to less- occurs if the membrane allows it or a concentration gradient exists- example: oxygen and carbon dioxide moving in and out of bloodFACILITATED DIFFUSION:- molecules or ions spread to regions from more concentrated to less- occurs if membrane allows it, concentration gradient exists and membrane proteins assist- example: movement of glucose and amino acidsOSMOSIS:- WATER molecules spread from more concentrated to less- occurs if membrane allows water to pass through it and if concentration gradient existsFILTRATION:- molecules FORCED from more concentrated to less- separates solids from water- relies upon hydrostatic pressure created by weight of water by gravity Active Transport (use of ATP molecules) Generally:- uses proteins to assist movement- moves against concentration gradient- example: proton pumps, Na/K pumpsENDOCYTOSIS:- for molecules TOO LARGE to go through passively- packaged inside of vesicles to move inward- phagocytosis: cell eating like bacteria or debris- pinocytosis: cell drinking like water with dissolves in it- receptor mediated: moves specific particles in to bind to ligandsEXOCYTOSIS:- secreted out through use of vesicles Chapter 4: Cellular Metabolism Reactions ANABOLIC Build up of larger molecules from smaller ones Requires energy and usually used for cell growth and repair example: dehydration synthesis CATABOLIC Buildup of larger molecules from smaller ones Releases energy example: hydrolysis or digestion Enzymes Definition: complex molecules (almost always proteins) that speed up chemical reactionsThey lower activation energy and are not consumed but only needed in small amountsVery specific to each chemical reactionSUBSTRATE:- chemical on which the enzyme acts- target of an enzyme reactionACTIVE SITE:- part of the enzyme in which substrate binds- places strain on chemical bonds to intensify chemical reactionENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS:- temperature: most enzymes become inactive at 113˚F or 45˚C- radiation: or UV rays can denature them- chemicals/pH: cause loss of control of balance, messes up specific environment

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