Anatomy - Chapters 5 & 6

Courtney Merkel
Note by Courtney Merkel, updated more than 1 year ago
Courtney Merkel
Created by Courtney Merkel over 5 years ago
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Tissues and skin

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Chapter 5: Tissues Epithelial Tissue LOCATED: exposed surfaces of the body, forms inner lining of body cavities, covers organsFUNCTION: protection, absorption, secretionCHARACTERISTICS: one side exposed, other anchored with connective tissue, readily divide and little to no blood Connective Tissue LOCATED: throughout body in bone, blood and cartilageFUNCTION: support, protection, binding structures, fill spaces, stores fat, produce blood cells, repair tissue damageCHARACTERISTICS: cells have spaces between them called extracellular matrices, flexible or rigid in nature Muscle Tissue LOCATED: throughout body attached to bones, the heart or in tracts and tubesFUNCTION: provide movementCHARACTERISTICS: cells can shorten, they contract or relax to stimuliTYPES: skeletal - voluntary, striated, multiple nuclei (biceps)cardiac - involuntary, striated, one nucleus (heart)smooth - involuntary, unstriated, one nucleus (stomach) Nervous Tissue LOCATED: in brain, spinal cord, and nerves throughout bodyFUNCTION: transmit signals, coordinates and regulates body functionsCHARACTERISTICS: respond to changes in surroundings, the basic cell is a neuron Types and Functions of Epithelium

Chapter 6: Skin and the Integumentary System Layers Epidermis outer layer of skin composed of stratified squamous epithelial tissue lacks blood vessels divides and grows shields against excessive water loss contains melanocytes to provide pigment Layers of Epidermis stratum corneumstratum lucidumstratum granulosumstratum spinosumstraum basaleAcronym: Come, Let's Get Sun Burned

Dermis binds epidermis to underlying tissue composed of dense connective tissue contains blood vessels to supply nutrients to skin cells and regulate body temperature has nerve cells contains hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands Subcutaneous contains loose connective and adipose tissue also made up of same elastic fibers as dermis there is no boundary between dermis and subcutaneous has a lower adipose layer that insulates and regulates temperature contains blood vessels

Accessory Organs NailsFUNCTION: as protective coveringsDESCRIPTION: made up of nail plate, cells divide and keratinizeLOCATION: ends of fingers, nail bedsHair FolliclesFUNCTION: structure of hair, as sense organs, regulation of temperature through arrector pili muscleDESCRIPTION: color determined by genes, hair develops from this group of cellsLOCATION: present everywhere but palms, soles and nipplesSebaceous GlandsFUNCTION: keeps hair and skin soft, pliable and waterproofDESCRIPTION: secretes mixture of fatty wastes and sebumLOCATION: around hair folliclesSweat GlandsFUNCTION: secretes wasteDESCRIPTION: sweat made of mostly water and some waste, mostly eccrine glands with some apocrine glands that become active at puberty, mammary glands are modified sweat glands that secrete milkLOCATION: all over, most numerous on forehead, neck and back Melanin and Skin Color Albinism is the inability to produce melaninAll people have the same average number of melanocytesSkin color differentiates based on the AMOUNT of melanin the melanocytes PRODUCEGenetically determined but can be affected by UV (sun and artificial), amount of blood (red = lots of oxygen, blue = not very much oxygen), and diet (yellow = too much B-carotene) Healing Wounds Uses inflammatory response to injury and stressCan become red, painful, swollen and warmThe blood vessels dilate to become more permeable to bloodProvides tissue with more nutrients and oxygen to aid in the healing processShallow cuts will be filled with rapidly diving epitheliumDeep cuts will break blood vessels to create clots and scab to form new collagenous fibers and bind wound

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