PEACE a rational and moral order of society that is rooted in God, who desires that we all live in harmonious relationship with one another in freedom and dignity fullness of life, the respect for human rights, and the development of human persons.
What peace is not: absence of war or conflict this is why a person can be quiet and still be in trouble.
UNDERSTANDING THE TRUE VALUE OF LAW Natural Law – the law that governs the human nature. 1-3: Love of God 4-10: Love of Neighbor Acts of Man – acts made by impulse Human Acts – your choice to do whatever you did or when you think before you act
Why follow law? “Those who claim their rights yet altogether forget or neglect to carry out their respective duties are people who build with one hand and destroy it with the other.” – Pope John XXIII
Does following the law violate personal freedom? No. They help us achieve our personal goals. These laws direct us to become the best person we could be.
What is a just law? 1. Ordinance of reason. - a good law must be reasonable. - It must be a product of careful and serious deliberation. - It should not be based merely on the whim, emotions, or sentiments of individual or a group 2. It must be properly promulgated. - It must be clearly communicated to all people.
LIMITATIONS OF THE LAW Limitation of Words - Words are not enough to completely translate or express the human values enshirened in the moral norms of the natural law and so of human rights. Unjust Laws - Human-made laws, being a product of human minds, so not necessarily correspond to, nor aptly reflect, the natural law. - Laws become unjust because of selfish intents and abuse of power. - Because of the complexity of communal life, it is difficult to give full justice to all in the face of conflicting claims. Implementation of Laws - The life of the law depends on human beings. Even if the law is good and just, if it is implemented with people with selfish motives, then it defeats its purpose and become unjust.
3. It must be decreed by competent authority. - Only persons with legitimate authority have the power to create and implement laws for their respective communities. 4. It is ought to be for the sake of the common good. - It must promote and respect man’s dignity and true freedom of each person. - It should foster the social well-being and authentic development of the community itself. - It should promote true and lasting peace within society.
Two wrong attitudes towards the law: - Treating the law lightly - Following the law to the letter
JUSTICE Commutative- The virtue that regulates those actions which involves the right between one individual and another individual. - The rules of commutative justice are precise and accurate. They concern the situations where one individual acts against another. The crime, the perpetrator and the victim are all identifiable to everyone. Ex: someone assaults you - Restitution is a requirement (punishment for the perpetrator) - Measures the mutual exchanges between persons in society. - Contracts must be honored.
Distributive- Governs the relationship between society and members. - Specifies the community’s obligations to distribute certain goods to the individual in just proportion to his contributions and needs. - The government, which has the charge over the people, should equitably distribute benefits as well as burdens to every citizen.
What then is the role of the government? - The government must create structures and systems to deliver services like health, education, safety, good infrastructures, etc. Contributive- Is the obligation to contribute one’s fair share of time, talent and/or money to the common good. - Is the moral obligation that is commonly articulated and measured in terms of the people’s obedience to the legal constitutions.
Social- Refers to the absence or eradication of unjust social structures, systems, or constitutions. - Actual exercise of social justice, everyone is involved: leaders and members, rich or poor.
PREFERENTIAL OPTION FOR THE POOR Myth #1: The poor are lazy. The real problem: They are poorly educated. Myth #2: The poor have many children to feed and support. The real problem: Unequal distribution of goods.
What does the Church teach us about poverty? - The root of poverty is beyond laziness or mismanaged economic goods. It is actually MORAL DEGRADATION. - When people begin to disregard others’ interests, they become selfish and selfishness is the root of poverty.
Response of the Church to Poverty: Preferential Option of for the Poor How do we practice it? Seeing through the eyes of the poor Working with the poor Working for them Trusting God’s Providence
Practicing the evangelical meaning of poverty: Understand the proper place and role of material things Share what we possess to the poor as a sign of gratitude to God. Work hard to improve society. Continue to hope in spite of material impoverishment.
PEACE & LAW
ON THE POOR