Science Study

D Arora
Note by , created over 3 years ago

Notes collated for Stage 4 Science Revision

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D Arora
Created by D Arora over 3 years ago
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Science Study/Summary atom The smallest whole part of all matter element A type of matter made of one type of atom molecule A type of matter made of two or more atoms chemically bonded together mixture A material made of different elements and/or compounds where there is no fixed ratio. Can be separated using physical means. chemical symbol A shorthand way to represent an element and molecule compound A type of matter made of two or more different types of atoms chemically bonded together physical change A type of change in which the form of matter changes it physical state as a result of energy changes chemical change A type of change where one or more substances are chemically altered into one or more new and different substances chemical reaction The process which brings about a chemical change acid A substance with particular chemical properties including turning litmus red, neutralising alkalis, often corrosive and sour-tasting. metal A type of matter which is typically a solid, shiny, malleable and ductile, with good electrical and thermal conductivity alloy A type of metal made by combining two or more metallic elements to give different physical properties lustre The manner in which a newly exposed surface of a metal reflects light malleable The ability of a metal to be beaten to form shapes without breaking ductile The ability of a metal to be drawn out to form a wire conductivity The ability of a substance to allow electricity or heat to travel through it extraction The process by which metals are removed from mineral ores electrolysis The process by which electric current is passed through a substance to effect a chemical change. decomposition A type of chemical reaction where a substance is broken down into two or more simpler substances synthesis A type of chemical reaction where two or more substances chemically combine to form a new substance precipitation A type of chemical reaction where two soluble salt solutions are combined to form an insoluble solid neutralisation A type of chemical reaction where an acid and a base interact to form a salt and water biopolymer A very large molecule made by living organisms petroleum Known as crude oil, an oily mixture of hydrocarbons that can be extracted from layers of rock and used to produce fuel and polymers Hydrogen-H Helium-He Lithium-Li Beryllium-Be Boron-B Carbon-C Nitrogen-N Oxygen-O Fluorine-F Neon-Ne Sodium-Na Magnesium-Mg Aluminium-Al Silicon-Si Phosphorus-P Sulphur-S Chlorine-Cl Argon-Ar Potassium-K Calcium-Ca Law of Conservation of Energy - No energy loss, no mass is lost Catalyst - speeds up a chemical reaction 8.2 Body Systems Wordlist Alveolus Also known as an air sac, they provide a large surface area for the exchange of gases with the blood. Artery The type of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart Atrium The top inflow chambers of the heart Bile Neutralises the acid from the stomach, produced in liver. Makes small intestine alkaline Bladder The organ that stores urine temporarily Breathing The act of inhaling and exhaling air Bronchiole The bronchi divide into many of these tiny tubes, each enter an air sac. Bronchus The two branching tubes from the trachea, each connected to a lung Capillaries The network of very small blood vessels that connect arteries to veins Cardiac muscle The type of muscle associated with the heart Cartilage Slippery ends of bones Circulation The movement of blood around the body through a series of tubes Cortex The part of the kidney which is made up of the convoluting tubules Diaphragm The curved muscle that separates the chest cavity and the abdomen which controls breathing Digestion The breaking down of large insoluble food particles into simple soluble molecules Dorsal aorta The artery that brings blood to the kidney to be filtered Duct A small tube for the passage of secretions from glands Duodenum The upper part of small intestine that receives bile and pancreatic juice Elimination The removal of waste material from the digestive system Epiglottis (remember kh, kh khan from the epiglottis) Flap that covers the trachea Excretion The removal of metabolic wastes which are produced by cells Gall bladder Stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver Gland Organs that make substances, released in the bloodstream Haemoglobin Protein that allows red blood cells to carry oxygen Hydrochloric acid Acid that chemically breaks down food in stomach Intercostal muscles The muscles between the ribs which increase the volume of the chest when breathing Kidney The organ that filters the blood of wastes Large intestine Absorbs water, salt, vitamins and minerals from undigested food Left side of heart Receives blood from lungs and pumps it around the body (larger side) Ligament A type of connective tissue joining bone to bone Lipase enzyme Breaks down fats into fatty acid and glycerol Medulla The part of the kidney which is made up of the loops of henle Muscle Cause movement of the bones by contracting and relaxing Nephron The filtering units of the kidney Oesophagus The tube leading from the back of the throat to the stomach Pancreas The gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum Pancreatic juice Released by the pancreas, it contains enzymes for the digestion of lipids Pelvis The part of the kidney made up of collecting ducts Plasma The clear fluid component of the blood which transports blood cells, nutrients and wastes around the body Platelets Stick together to stop bleeding, forms scab Protease enzyme Breaks down protein into amino acids, is produced in stomach Pulmonary The part of the circulation system which involves the flow of blood to and from the lungs Rectum The last section of the large intestine which stores wastes until they are eliminated Red blood cells Erythrocytes carry oxygen to be delivered to other cells Renal Pertaining to the kidneys Renal artery and vein Connects dorsal aorta and vena cava to kidney Reproduction The production of offspring that resemble the parents Respiration A chemical reaction carried out by all living cells where glucose and oxygen react to produce carbon dioxide, water and releases energy. Right side of heart Receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs (smaller side) Skeleton The system that provides support, protection and allows movement Small intestine Digests nutrients and water to be metabolised Smooth muscle The type of muscle associated with internal organs, such as the stomach, intestine, bladder and blood vessels. Sphincter Ring of muscle gateway that opens and closes in the stomach, anus etc. Stomach The bag shaped organ which churns food with gastric juices Striated muscle The type of muscle associated with the skeleton Systemic The part of the circulation system which involves the flow of blood to and from the heart and the body Tendon A type of connective tissue joining muscle to bone Trachea The tube leading from the back of the throat to the bronchi. Also called the windpipe Ureter The tube carrying urine, leading from the kidney to the bladder Urethra The tube carrying urine, leading from the bladder to outside the body Vein The type of blood vessel that carries blood to the heart Vena cava The vein that takes blood to the kidney to be filtered and brought back to the heart Ventricle The bottom outflow chambers of the heart Villi Absorb nutrients in the small intestine Voluntary A type of muscle controlled by conscious thought White blood cells Leukocytes fight bacteria and virusHUMAN BODY SYSTEM CHART SYSTEM FUNCTIONS ORGANS/Major STRUCTURES Skeletal Functions: 1. Supports and protects the body 2. Protect organs 3. Makes blood cells 4. Gives the body the shape 5. Helps body to move Bones Ligaments: connects bones to bones Cartilage: provides cushioning between the bones Red Marrow: makes blood Muscular Function: Help the body move Two Types of Muscles: 1. Voluntary Muscles: muscles you CAN control (Skeletal Muscles) 2. Involuntary Muscles: muscles you CANNOT control (smooth and cardiac muscles) Heart, diaphragm, biceps/triceps Tendon: connects muscle to bones Skeletal Muscles: attached to the bones and helps us move Smooth Muscles: make up most of the organs of our body Cardiac Muscles: make up the heart Digestive Function: Breaks down food to make energy for the body *Direction of food movement: Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, Rectum, Anus *Peristalsis: muscle movement that moves food through the esophagus Mouth Esophagus: Long tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. Stomach, Liver, Pancreas Small Intestine: where most digestion takes place. Large Intestine: Takes water from the undigested materials Rectum, Anus Circulatory Function: Carries O2, CO2, food, waste disease fighting cells, &hormones through the body *Direction of blood flow: Heart Veins Arteries Capillaries Heart: main organ of CS that pumps blood to all parts of the body Artery: thickest blood vessel that carries blood high in oxygen AWAY from the heart. Capillary: thinnest blood vessel that connects arteries & veins and where the actual exchange of materials takes place. Vein: blood vessel that carries blood high in carbon dioxide TOWARD the heart. Blood: carries food and oxygen to the body and takes away waste from cells White Blood Cells: fight disease Respiratory Function: take in oxygen and take out carbon dioxide and some water out of the body *Direction of air movement: nose trachea bronchi (into the lungs) bronchioles alveoli Nose Trachea: large tube that carries air to the bronchi Larynx Bronchi: tube that connects the trachea and lungs Lungs: main organ of the RS Alveoli: A tiny air sac where gas exchange takes place Diaphragm and intercostal muscles: strong muscles below and around the lungs that help in breathing Excretory *Function: take out waste from the body Direction of urine movement: Body kidney ureter Urinary bladder urethra *Urine is made of waste, extra water, and salt *Perspiration (sweat): liquid waste that leaves the body through the skin and helps control the body temperature Kidney: main organ of the ES where urine is made Ureter: a tube that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder Urinary bladder Urethra: a tube that carries urine out of the body Liver, Skin !!!How do your lungs, kidneys, & skin remove (take away) waste from your body??? Lungs: breathe out CO2 Kidney: make urine Skin: perspiration (sweat) Nervous Function: controls ALL the activities of the body: it’s the “boss” Two parts of nervous system: 1. Central Nervous system (CNS): made up of brain and spinal cord, controls all activities of the body. 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): made up of all the nerves outside of CNS, and carries messages between CNS to the all parts of the body Brain: control center of our body functions Spinal cord: connects brain with the rest of the body Nerves: nerve cells