adjectives and adverbs

Note by kiejrys, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by kiejrys over 7 years ago


cpe ENGLISH GRAMMAR Note on adjectives and adverbs, created by kiejrys on 03/05/2014.

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INTERMEDIATE LEVELADJECTIVES give more information about NOUNS. examples:a white lamb (ADJECTIVE GOES FIRST)a little white lamb a white and black lamb ( WE USE AND BETWEEN ADJECTIVES ONLY IF THEY BOTH DESCRIBE THE SAME QUALITY E.G. COLOUR)_________________________________________________________________________________________We can use ADJS after the VERBS:BE, APPEAR, BECOME, GET, FEEL, LOOK, SEEM, TASTEe.g. They look cute.         She seems nice.        I'm getting tired._____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________The adjectives ALIVE, AFRAID, ALONE, ASLEEP, AWAKE are always used after the verb an we cannot use them in front of the noun.e.g. They are asleep children. WRONG         The children are asleep. GOOD_________________________________________________________________________________________We can use verbs ending in - ed or - ing as adjectives. I like smoked meat. They're looking for a missing person. He invented the first flying machine. BE CAREFUL!!!I am confused. (-ed adjectives describe how we feel)It is confusing. (-ing adjectives describes what something is like)_________________________________________________________________________________________ADJS orderOPINION-SIZE-SHAPE-AGE-COLOUR-ORIGIN-MATERIAL-TYPE/PURPOSEWe don't usually use more than three or four adjectives in front of the noun. If we want to give more information we use another clause or sentence. Mu uncle has a really valuable large old black Italian sports car. WRONGMy uncle has a large black Italian sports car, which is old and really valuable. GOOD_________________________________________________________________________________________We can use adverbs of degree to make most adjectives stronger or weaker.e.g. I think it is beautiful. -> I think it is really beautiful. (stronger meaning)WEAKER                                                                                                                                    STRONGERa little/a bit/slightly            fairly           quite           rather / pretty              very          really           extremely we don't use 'a bit / a little' with adjectives which come before a noun:                                                               I bought a bit expensive car. WRONG                                                                                                              The watch I bought was a bit expensive. GOOD we often use 'rather' with negative adjectives: She's rather bossy. when we use 'quite' or 'rather' with positive adjectives it often means something which is surprising:                 That lesson was rather ineteresting. (more than I expected) when a noun follows 'quite/rather + adj' we add a/an:                                                                                           He was quite nice. He was quite a nice person. That's rather expensive. That's rather an expensive hotel. _______________________________________________________________________________________Comparison of ADJS adjs with one syllable: - er / - estadsj with two or more syllable: more/less and the most/least irregular adjbad - worse - the worstgood - better - the bestfar - farther/further - the farthest/furthest well (=healthy) - better adj with two syllables when the 2nd syllable is unstressed (often ending in -y,-ly,-ow,-or,-l) can sometimes form the comparative and superlative in the same way as one-syllable adj: friendly-friendlier-the friendliest; funny; gentle Comparative ADJHe is taller than Mike. We use object pronouns (me, her, etc.), not subject pronouns (I, she, etc.) after than: He is taller than he. WRONGHe is taller than him. GOODWe don't use more or less with an adj which is already comparative:Kevin is more taller than Mike. WRONGWe can use two comparatives to show that something is changing:The weather is getting hotter and hotter.Food is becoming more and more expensive. Superlative ADJWe use the or possessive adj (my, your, etc.) before the superlative form:What was your best subject at school?The blue whale is the largest creature in the world. After superlative we use 'in' before singular nouns and 'of' before plural nouns. The blue whale is the largest creature in the world. The blue whale is the largest creature of the whales. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________-COMPARATIVE STRUCTURES The blue car is as expensive as the red one. I'm not nearly as clever as my brother. (=He's much cleverer than me.) BIG DIFFERENCEMy house is almost as big as yours. = My house isn't quite as big as yours. (=My house is slightly smaller.) SMALL DIFFERENCEMikal's motorbike is the same as mine. EQUALTigers are different from/to/than leopards. NOT EQUAL (from/to - BrE; than - AmE)Indian elephants are similar to African elephants. NEARLY THE SAMEWe use nouns and pronouns after the same as, similar to, different from, not adjectives:They are the same expensive. WRONGThey are the same price. GOODMAKING COMPARISONS STRONGER OR WEAKERComparisons:- stronger: much, a lot, and far New York is a lot bigger than Paris.- weaker: a bit, slightly, a littleMy sister is slightly taller than me. Superlatives:- stronger: by far (it means there is a big difference)He's by far the tallest student in our class. (=He's much taller than all the others.)- weaker: one of, amongJulie is among the cleverest of our students. _________________________________________________________________________________________ADVANCED LEVELMost adjectives can be used before nouns (attributive position), or after a linking verb (predicative position):ATTRIBUTIVE We've just seen an exciting movie. PREDICATIVE Tha film was exciting. But classifying adjectives (describe what type of thing something is)  and emphasising adjectives are normally only used BEFORE a noun:The plant they're building here is chemical. WRONGThey're building a chemical plant here. GOOD


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