biological approach (cont.)

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Note on biological approach (cont.), created by sophiesmith11 on 04/29/2013.

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Created by sophiesmith11 over 6 years ago
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We inherit 50% of our genes from our parents. If you inherit a Y chromosome from your father the baby will be male and if a X chromosome is inherited then the baby will be female. for the first few weeks of prenatal development, foetus' develop identically after 6 weeks, the sex organs start to develop. They develop identically initially in both males & females, with the only difference being the Y chromosome. A gene in the Y chromosome produces SRY protein which is a testes determining factor. After this, the role of genes ceases in development. The role of the Y chromosome is to make sure the male sex organs develop and are subject to male hormones. Testosterone is the hormone that causes physical differences between males and females. scientific and measureable eg hormone levels support from David Reimer, even after being raised as a female he still felt male challenged by the learning approach which would argue your gender development comes from observing and imitating challenged by the psychodynamic approach which would argue your gender development comes from identification with the same sex parent. studies on animals, such as Pfeiffer, may not give us a true insight as humans are more complex. 

Are transgender operations ethical? Transgender operations involve the reassignment of sex It involves reconstructive genital surgery and hormone  changes. the discussion of ethics is difficult as it is not clear why people want to change. Money's study seemed successful at first and showed a male could be raised as a female. However, in David Reimer's later testimony, he was unhappy as a female and changed back to a male. The case of Daphane went shows it is possible to live as a female and be biologically male. social learning theorists would argue that with apporpriate role models, you can learn to be a specific sex IF gender is partly due to brain lateralisation, then these operations wouldnt work.

A: to see if babies could be brought up as the opposite sex from which had been assigned to them.M:Janet Reimer gave birth to identical twins. They were taken to be surgically castrated due to a medical problem. There was an accident during Bruce's and his penis was burnt off.    The Reimer's saw Dr Money on a programme talking about gender neutrality and decided to contact him.    Dr Money said that because Bruce was under 2 years old, he could successfully be raised as a girl because he believed everyone was gender neutral up until this point.    'Brenda' was dressed in girl's clothing, encouraged to play with girls toys and had basic genital surgery.    At the age of 12,'Brenda' was given oestrogen to stop male features such as facial hair    Money tracked 'Brenda's' development by organising annual visits to the university.R: Money said that Brenda had a female gender indentity and behaved in a feminine way    The mother reported Brenda  liked to play with dolls, wear dresses and help around the house    Brenda did have some tomboyish traits but this was said to be down to imitating her brotherC:Money concluded we are born gender neutral and do not have a gender from birth.   He concluded that gender identity can be aquired through how we are brought up/treated as a child.+high ecological validity+data from more than one source+practical application-hard to generalise-subjective intepretation 

A:To study twins, at least one of whom has s1, to see if s1 has a genetic base.M:Each pair of twins was tested using blood group and finger prints to test if they were identical or not    Hospital records and interviews were used to determine if one of the twins had schizophrenia.    The twins and their parents were tested for disorganised thinking and the twins had a personality test.    They tested to see if both twins had been diagnosed with schizophrenia, and whether both twins had a different mental disorder.R:42% of MZ twins had been diagnosed with s1 compared to 9% dzC: Geners do play a role in the development of schizophrenia. + secondary data+careful to use only relevant data.+generalisable to other twins-concordance rate only shows relationship not cause and evidence to explain s1 just description.     

gender development



key issue