Solutions, Concentration and Limestone

Note by ShreyaDas, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by ShreyaDas about 7 years ago


IGCSE Chemistry (C4 Acids and Bases) Note on Solutions, Concentration and Limestone, created by ShreyaDas on 02/04/2014.

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When a substance is dissolved in a suitable liquid a solution is  formed- substance that is dissolved = solute- substance that dissolves solute = solvent

there is a limit to how much solute can be dissolved in a particular solvent (amount varies with temperature) - when a solvent has dissolved as much solute as it can it is saturated solubility of a substance depends on:- nature of solute- nature of solvent- temperature

litres = dm3number of moles/molarity = volume in dm3


1dm3 = 1000cm31cm3 = .001dm3


if given mass of solute use molar mass to figure out how many moles there arethen use the volume or molarity to figure out the unknown molarity/volume

don't forget about empirical formula when figuring out how many moles there are

- form of calcium carbonate- other forms: chalk, marble, calcite- has many uses and can be converted into other calcium compounds

Uses:- neutralize acid soils- stone sculptors use it because:= it carves really well= beautiful= lasts for a really long timeconstruction:- glass,- concrete- cementMedicineToothpasteAdded to BreadVital in Extraction of IronMade from remains of cells of sea creaturesformed under the sea

acid + calcium carbonate = neutral solutionfinding an alternative as good as limestone is difficultcalcium carbonate can be processeddecomposes into carbon dioxide and calcium oxidecalcium oxide is used in the manufacturing of steel


1. Calcium Carbonate is heated= CaO (+ CO2)2. Water is added to the productCaO + H2O = Ca(OH)2 3. Carbon dioxide is bubbled through the limewaterCa(OH)2 + CO2 = CaCO3 + H2O

First, memorize that all common Group 1A metal ionic compounds (that which contain Li, Na, K, Rb, or Cs) are soluble.

First, memorize that all common Group 1A metal ionic compounds (that which contain Li, Na, K, Rb, or Cs) are soluble.

Then memorize that all common NH4 (ammonium) ionic compounds are also soluble in water. Compounds with an H+ cation (like HCl, hydrochloric acid) also tend to be soluble, as these are generally acids.



Concentration of Solutions



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