Rates Of Reaction

lmg719
Note by lmg719, updated more than 1 year ago
lmg719
Created by lmg719 about 8 years ago
473
5

Description

Chemistry (Rates of Reaction) Note on Rates Of Reaction, created by lmg719 on 05/08/2013.

Resource summary

Page 1

he rate of a reaction can be measured by the rate at which a reactant is used up, or the rate at which a product is formed.

The temperature, concentration, pressure of reacting gases, surface area of reacting solids, and the use of catalysts, are all factors which affect the rate of a reaction.

The temperature, concentration, pressure of reacting gases, surface area of reacting solids, and the use of catalysts, are all factors which affect the rate of a reaction.

Chemical reactions can only happen if reactant particles collide with enough energy. The more frequently particles collide, and the greater the proportion of collisions with enough energy, the greater the rate of reaction.

Measuring rates Different reactions can happen at different rates. Reactions that happen slowly have a low rate of reaction. Reactions that happen quickly have a high rate of reaction. For example, the chemical weathering of rocks is a very slow reaction: it has a low rate of reaction. Explosions are very fast reactions: they have a high rate of reaction. Reactants and products There are two ways to measure the rate of a reaction: Measure the rate at which a reactant is used up Measure the rate at which a product is formed The method chosen depends on the reaction being studied. Sometimes it is easier to measure the change in the amount of a reactant that has been used up; sometimes it is easier to measure the change in the amount of product that has been produced. Things to measure The measurement itself depends on the nature of the reactant or product: The mass of a substance - solid, liquid or gas - is measured with a balance The volume of a gas is usually measured with a gas syringe, or sometimes an upside down measuring cylinder or burette It is usual to record the mass or total volume at regular intervals and plot a graph. The readings go on the vertical axis, and the time goes on the horizontal axis. For example, if 24 cm3 of hydrogen gas is produced in two minutes, the mean rate of reaction = 24 ÷ 2 = 12 cm3 hydrogen / min.

Factors affecting the rate You will be expected to remember the factors that affect the rate of reactions, and to plot or interpret graphs from rate experiments. How to increase the rate of a reaction The rate of a reaction increases if: The temperature is increased The concentration of a dissolved reactant is increased The pressure of a reacting gas is increased Solid reactants are broken into smaller pieces A catalyst is used

Rate of reaction and changing conditions The graph above summarises the differences in the rate of reaction at different temperatures, concentrations and size of pieces. The steeper the line, the greater the rate of reaction. Reactions are usually fastest at the beginning, when the concentration of reactants is greatest. When the line becomes horizontal, the reaction has stopped.

Collisions and reactions You will be expected to explain, in terms of particles and their collisions, why changing the conditions of a reaction changes its rate. Collisions For a chemical reaction to occur, the reactant particles must collide. Collisions with too little energy do not produce a reaction.The collision must have enough energy for the particles to react. The minimum energy needed for particles to react is called the activation energy.

Changing concentration or pressure If the concentration of a dissolved reactant is increased, or the pressure of a reacting gas is increased: There are more reactant particles in the same volume There is a greater chance of the particles colliding The rate of reaction increases Changing particle size If a solid reactant is broken into small pieces or ground into a powder: Its surface area is increased More particles are exposed to the other reactant There is a greater chance of the particles colliding The rate of reaction increased.

Changing the temperature If the temperature is increased: The reactant particles move more quickly More particles have the activation energy or greater The particles collide more often, and more of the collisions result in a reaction The rate of reaction increases Using a catalyst Catalysts increase the rate of reaction without being used up. They do this by lowering the activation energy needed. With a catalyst, more collisions result in a reaction, so the rate of reaction increases. Different reactions need different catalysts.Catalysts are important in industry because they reduce costs.

Rates of reactions

Factors affecting the rate

Collisions and reactions

Show full summary Hide full summary

Similar

Using GoConqr to study science
Sarah Egan
Electrolysis
lisawinkler10
Chemistry General Quiz - 2
lauren_johncock
Chemistry Quiz General -3
lauren_johncock
AS Chemistry - Enthalpy Changes
Sarah H-V
Acids and Bases
Sarah Egan
Acids and Bases
silviaod119
The Periodic Table
asramanathan
Ionic Bondic Flashcards.
anjumn10
Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
silviaod119
Organic Chemistry
Ella Wolf