Chapter 17: Developmental Concepts

Alexandra Bozan
Quiz by Alexandra Bozan, updated more than 1 year ago
Alexandra Bozan
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Unit IV: Promoting Health Across the Lifespan Chapter 17: Developmental Concepts

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
A nurse examining a toddler in a pediatric office documents that the child is in the 90th percentile for height and weight and has blue eyes. These physical characteristics are primarily determined by:
Answer
  • Socialization with caregivers
  • Maternal nutrition during pregnancy
  • Genetic information on chromosomes
  • Meeting developmental tasks

Question 2

Question
The nurse caring for infants in a hospital nursery knows that newborns continue to grow and develop according to individual growth patterns and developmental levels. Which terms describe these patterns?
Answer
  • Orderly
  • Simple
  • Sequential
  • Unpredictable
  • Differentiated
  • Integrated

Question 3

Question
A 2-year old grabs a handful of cake from the table and stuff it in his mouth. According to Freud, what part of the mind is the child satisfying?
Answer
  • Id
  • Superego
  • Ego
  • Unconscious mind

Question 4

Question
A nurse is teaching parents of preschoolers what type of behavior to expect from their children based on developmental theories. Which statements describe this stage of development?
Answer
  • According to Freud, the child is in the phallic stage
  • According to Erikson, the child is in the trust versus mistrust stage
  • According to Havighurst, the child is learning to get along with others
  • According to Fowler, the child imitates religious behavior of others
  • According to Kohlberg, the child defines satisfying acts as right
  • According to Havighurst, the child is achieving gender-specific roles

Question 5

Question
A nurse caring for elderly patients in a long-term care facility encourages an older adult to reminisce about her past life events. This life review, according to Erikson, is demonstrating what developmental stage of the later adult years?
Answer
  • Ego integrity
  • Generativity
  • Intimacy
  • Initiative

Question 6

Question
A nurse researcher studies the effects of genomics on current nursing practice. Which statements identify genetic principles that will challenge nurses to integrate genomics in their research, education, and practice?
Answer
  • Genetic tests plus family history tools have the potential to identify people at risk for diseases
  • Pharmacogenetic test can determine if a patient is likely to have a strong therapeutic response to a drug or suffer adverse reactions form the medication
  • Evidence-based review panels are in place to evaluate the possible risks and benefits related to genetic testing
  • Valid and reliable national data are available to establish baseline measures and track progress toward targets
  • Genetic variation can either accelerate or slow the metabolism of many drugs
  • It is beyond the role of the nurse to answer questions and discuss the impact of genetic findings on health and illness

Question 7

Question
A nurse who is working with women in a drop-in shelter studies Carol Gilligan's theory of morality in women to use when planning care. According to Gilligan, what is the motivation for female morality?
Answer
  • Law and justice
  • Obligations and rights
  • Response and care
  • Order and selfishness

Question 8

Question
Which factor initially influences moral development as described in Kohlberg's theory?
Answer
  • Parent-child communications
  • Societal rules and regulations
  • Social and religious rules
  • One's belief and values

Question 9

Question
The school nurse uses the principle and theories of growth and development when planning programs for high school students. According to Havighurst, what is developmental task for this age group?
Answer
  • Finding a congenial social group
  • Developing a conscience, morality, and a scale of values
  • Achieving personal independence
  • Achieving a masculine or feminine gender role

Question 10

Question
A nurse is interviewing Anthony, a 42 year old patient who visits his internist for a blood pressure screening. Anthony tells the nurse that he is currently a sales associate but is considering a different career. He states that he is a little anxious about the process. According to Levinson, what phase of adult life is Anthony experiencing?
Answer
  • Entering the adult world
  • Settling down
  • Midlife transition
  • The pay-off years

Question 11

Question
The nurse is caring for a boy 4 years of age who has gone through a painful surgery. During the hospitalization the child has been wetting his bed. The child's mother expresses dismay and anger, saying that her son has been toilet trained for about a year. The nurse needs to recall which of the following general principles of growth and development when responding to the mother?
Answer
  • Anticipate possible regression during difficult times
  • Children most often develop at their own pace
  • Male children often have difficulty maintaining urinary incontinence
  • Parents often expect perfection from their children

Question 12

Question
A boy 8 years of age is looking at his father's razor and shaving cream in the bathroom medicine cabinet. He watches his father shave daily and asks his father when he will need to start shaving. This child is demonstrating characteristics common during which of Freud's psychoanalytical developmental stages?
Answer
  • Genital stage
  • Anal stage
  • Phallic stage
  • Latency stage

Question 13

Question
Which of the following actions should a nurse take in order to apply theories of development into nursing care?
Answer
  • Maintain separation between clients with widely varying developmental stages
  • Grant autonomy to clients who in later developmental stages but make decisions for those in earlier stages
  • Choose outcomes that are reflective of client's developmental stages
  • Consistently ask clients what developmental stage they care currently experiencing

Question 14

Question
A student nurse is visiting a day care, where the focus is to observe object permanence. According to Piaget, object permanence does not occur until which of the following ages?
Answer
  • 8 months
  • 24 months
  • 12 months
  • 6 months

Question 15

Question
The nurse is caring for a woman 40 years of age, who is admitted for fixation of an ankle fracture related to a rollerblading accident. She comments to the nurse that she plans on giving up rollerblading, because her balance and reflexes are not as good as they once were. She sounds accepting of this. According to Robert Havighurst in which of the following developmental stages is this client?
Answer
  • Middle adulthood
  • Ego integrity versus despair
  • Generativity versus stagnation
  • Midlife transition

Question 16

Question
A student nurse is assisting the school nurse with a health fair at a middle school. The student nurse assesses the student's heights and weights as they file through the station, observing that there is a large variation in physical size and emotional maturity. Which of the following factors may affect emotional growth of children?
Answer
  • Development of trust
  • Loving caregivers
  • Colorful toys
  • Availability of books
  • Praise for doing well

Question 17

Question
The school nurse is teaching growth and development in a health class. What should the nurse teach the students about development?
Answer
  • It is best defined as intellectual growth
  • It centers around an increase in body size
  • It is the process of ongoing change
  • It is influenced by genetically predisposed alterations

Question 18

Question
The nurse is providing prenatal education for a group of pregnant teenagers. The nurse talks about substance abuse during pregnancy and relates which of the following possible newborn consequences?
Answer
  • Development of mistrust
  • Low birth weight
  • Congenital anomolies
  • Premature birth
  • Poor development of super ego

Question 19

Question
As the nurse is preparing an immunization for a male client 2 years of age, his mother discovers that he has soiled his underpants. She scolds him and calls him a bad boy because he dirtied his underwear. The nurse gives the immunization and provides some education to the mother about appropriate expectations for this age group. The nurse knows that according to Erikson's theory for this client's age group, he is at risk to develop which of the following?
Answer
  • isolation
  • shame and doubt
  • inferiority
  • guilt

Question 20

Question
Newborns are capable of activities such as grasping objects and displaying basic reflexes. To which of the following of Piaget's cognitive developmental stages do the newborns belong?
Answer
  • Sensorimotor
  • Formal operational
  • Concrete operational
  • Preoperational

Question 21

Question
The nurse is seeing a male client 6 years of age. As the nurse is measuring the height and weight, his mother comments on how coordinated he is becoming. The nurse knows that this increase in coordination is which of the following?
Answer
  • Part of being prepubescent
  • due to growth
  • related to development
  • a reflex

Question 22

Question
Cognitive theory states that human nature is essentially rational and that the individual's basic goal is to learn to master the environment. Which of the following cognitive processes involve the rearranging and structuring of one's knowledge and thoughts.
Answer
  • accomodation
  • assimilation
  • organization
  • adaptation

Question 23

Question
The nurse is caring for a man 79 years of age who was admitted for a hip replacement. He visits with the nurse every chance he gets, he seems lonely. He tells the nurse his wife died two years ago. He has children in nearby cities, and has nine grandchildren. He says his life has been good and he is content, even though he misses his wife. The nurse assesses him for developmental issues and knows that he fits well into which of Erik's stages of development?
Answer
  • Intimacy versus isolation
  • Mental health vs instability
  • Generativity vs stagnation
  • Ego integrity vs despair

Question 24

Question
The nurse sees a client age 4 years and her mother at the pediatric clinic. The client is here for immunizations. She is bubbly and talkative, and tell you about her dance lessons and her new baby brother. Her mother tells you she encourages her daughter to try new experiences and enjoy life. You know that according to Erikson's developmental theory the client is well on her way to achieving which of the following?
Answer
  • Self-identity
  • autonomy
  • initiative
  • industry

Question 25

Question
A mother brings her toddler age 20 months to the clinic for immunizations. She talks about trying to initiate toilet training but her son was not interested. She decided to put it off for a while. She told her son he was a good boy and they would try again another time. According to Erikson's theory what is the likely outcome for his developmental stage?
Answer
  • intimacy
  • initiative
  • autonomy
  • identity

Question 26

Question
A nurse is reviewing developmental theories for class discussion. The nurse knows that Freud's theory emphasizes the effect of instinctual human drives on behavior. He identified the underlying stimulus for human behavior as sexuality, which he called libido. Freud defined libido as which of the following?
Answer
  • General pleasure seeking instincts
  • Pure genital gratification
  • Seeking sexual gratification
  • Seeking sexual stimulation

Question 27

Question
The nurse is caring for a woman 69 years of age who is admitted for fixation for an ankle fracture related to a fall at home. The client states that she is thinking of selling her home and moving to a smaller place. Her husband died 6 months ago and she is unable to physically maintain her home without him. She sounds accepting of this. According to Robert Havighurst, in which of the following developmental stages is the client?
Answer
  • Midlife transition
  • Later Maturity
  • Generativity vs stagnation
  • Ego integrity vs despair

Question 28

Question
A pediatric nurse practitioner is assessing the development of a child. The nurses's assessment of development will focus on which of the following?
Answer
  • A static process that occurs during childhood
  • Increases in the child's boy size
  • Changes in thoughts, feelings and behaviours
  • Changes in the body's cell structure, function and complexity

Question 29

Question
According to Kohlberg, which of the following considerations is central to human development?
Answer
  • Influence
  • Morality
  • Agency
  • Safety

Question 30

Question
Following Gilligan's theory of moral development, which woman characterizes Level 1 - Selfishness?
Answer
  • A woman who volunteers at a local shelter
  • A woman involved in various sports activity of her children
  • A woman who begins to exercise to achieve greater health
  • A woman avoiding dating after ending an 8 year relationship

Question 31

Question
A resident of a long-term care facility, age 82 years, often tells stories of the role that he played in the Korean War. According to Erikson, which of the following needs may underlie the resident's storytelling?
Answer
  • The need to demonstrate that he was capable of aggression in earlier adulthood
  • The need to show that others where dependent of him in earlier stages of life
  • The need to demonstrate that his life was meaningful and purposeful
  • The need to show that his life was characterized by moral integrity

Question 32

Question
A mother 13 years of age delivers a low birth weight neonate, and the neonate is transferred to the ICU. The mother reports receiving occasional prenatal care and has a history of excessive alcohol consumption. The growth and development of this neonate has been influenced by which of the following?
Answer
  • caregiver factors
  • individual factors
  • spiritual factors
  • prenatal factors

Question 33

Question
Gould's theory of transformation in adults included which developmental phase for those between 50 and 60?
Answer
  • Challenging false assumptions
  • Accepting life is neither simple nor controllable
  • Questioning self and values
  • Having increased self-approval and acceptance
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