Biochem - regulation of metabolism in the fed and fasting states

Alannah McDonnell
Quiz by Alannah McDonnell, updated more than 1 year ago
Alannah McDonnell
Created by Alannah McDonnell over 3 years ago
515
3

Description

Quiz on Biochem - regulation of metabolism in the fed and fasting states, created by Alannah McDonnell on 05/03/2018.

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
What is the fed state?
Answer
  • The absorptive state
  • The 2-4 hour period after ingestion of a normal meal
  • The time after you’ve eaten something
  • The 8 hours after ingestion

Question 2

Question
What happens during the fed state?
Answer
  • Plasma levels of CHO, AAs and TAGS rise
  • Plasma levels of CHO, AAs and TAGs fall
  • Islet tissue responds
  • An anabolic period
  • A catabolic period
  • Glucose used as fuel
  • Gluconeogenis is mainly used
  • Metabolic response dominated by alterations in the liver, adipose tissue, muscle and brain

Question 3

Question
What factors control the flow of intermediates through metabolism?
Answer
  • Availability of substrates
  • Allosteric activators and inhibitors
  • Synthesis of new enzyme molecules
  • Covalent modification of enzymes

Question 4

Question
When does fasting begin?
Answer
  • If no food is ingested after the absorptive period
  • Once ingestion of a meal ends
  • When eating stops
  • Before the absorptive period begins

Question 5

Question
How quickly does the availability of substrates affect the flow of intermediates through metabolism?
Answer
  • Minutes
  • Minutes to hours
  • Seconds
  • Hours to days

Question 6

Question
How quickly does the allosteric activators and inhibitors affect the flow of intermediates through metabolism?
Answer
  • Seconds
  • Minutes
  • Minutes to hours
  • Hours to days

Question 7

Question
How quickly does the covalent modification of enzymes affect the flow of intermediates through metabolism?
Answer
  • Seconds
  • Minutes
  • Minutes to hours
  • Hours to days

Question 8

Question
How quickly does the synthesis of new enzyme molecules affect the flow of intermediates through metabolism?
Answer
  • Seconds
  • Minutes
  • Minutes to hours
  • Hours to days

Question 9

Question
The fed state is a ...
Answer
  • anabolic period
  • catabolic period
  • osmotic period

Question 10

Question
During the fed state nutrients are captured as...
Answer
  • Glycogen
  • TAG
  • proteins
  • alcohol
  • sugar

Question 11

Question
Glucokinase has a _______ Km for glucose
Answer
  • high
  • low

Question 12

Question
How does the liver respond to high blood glucose levels?
Answer
  • by increasing the phosphorylation of glucose
  • by decreasing the phosphorylation of glucose
  • by ingesting glucokinase
  • by allowing sodium into the cell to counteract the blood glucose levels
  • by releasing insulin

Question 13

Question
What enzyme phosphorylates glucose?
Answer
  • glucokinase
  • fructokinase
  • amalase
  • glucolase

Question 14

Question
Glucose uptake by the hepatocyte __________ rate limiting
Answer
  • is
  • is not

Question 15

Question
What trasports glucose iinto the liver?
Answer
  • GLUT 4
  • insulin
  • glucokinase
  • fructokinase
  • amalase

Question 16

Question
In the well fed (absorptive state) Glycogen Synthase has a part in one of the major metabolic pathways. What is glycogen synthase activated by?
Answer
  • glucose 6-P
  • glucose 7-P
  • glucokinase
  • fructokinase

Question 17

Question
What GLUTs do adipocytes contain?
Answer
  • the insulin sensitive GLUT 4
  • the insulin sensitive GLUT 3
  • the non - insulin sensitive GLUT 4
  • the non-insulin sensitive GLUT 3
  • the insulin sensitive GLUT 2

Question 18

Question
Carbohydrate metabolism in the fed state causes.....
Answer
  • Increased glucose transport
  • increased glycolysis
  • increased PPP
  • increased TAG storage

Question 19

Question
Fat metabolism in the fed state causes...
Answer
  • Increased TAG storage
  • Increased glucose transport
  • increased glycolysis
  • increased PPP

Question 20

Question
In the absorptive state, CHO Metabolism causes ____________ in Skeletal muscle.
Answer
  • increased glucose transport
  • increased glycogen synthesis
  • increased Fatty Acids
  • increased protein degradation.
  • increased glucose synthase

Question 21

Question
The absorptive state is the same as the fed state
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 22

Question
In the absorptive state, Fat Metabolism causes ____________ in Skeletal muscle.
Answer
  • Fatty acids from chylomicrons by lipoprotein lipase
  • increased glucose transport
  • increased uptake of BCAAs
  • hunger
  • increased glucose synthase

Question 23

Question
In the absorptive state, Amino Acid Metabolism causes ____________ in Skeletal muscle.
Answer
  • increased protein synthase
  • Increased uptake of BCAAs
  • increased glycogen synthesis
  • FA breakdown
  • Protein breakdown
  • amalgamation of amino acids

Question 24

Question
During the absorptive state the grain completely....
Answer
  • oxidizes glucose to CO2 and Water
  • oxidizes glycogen to CO2 and Water
  • oxidizes glycogen to O2 and Water
  • oxidizes glucose to O2 and Water

Question 25

Question
What is the main GLUT used in the brain?
Answer
  • insulin insensitive GLUT-1
  • insulin sensitive GLUT-1
  • insulin insensitive GLUT-3
  • insulin sensitive GLUT-3

Question 26

Question
During the fasting state, plasma levels of glucose, amino acids and TAG fall triggering a ....
Answer
  • decline in insulin secretion
  • increase in insulin secretion
  • increase in inulin secretion
  • decline in glucagon secretion
  • increase in glucagon secretion

Question 27

Question
the fasting state is __________
Answer
  • catabolic
  • anabolic

Question 28

Question
One of the [blank_start]2[blank_end] priorities during the [blank_start]fasting[blank_end] state is the need to maintain adequate [blank_start]plasma[blank_end] levels of [blank_start]glucose[blank_end] to sustain energy metabolism of the [blank_start]brain,[blank_end] [blank_start]RBC[blank_end]s and other glucose requiring tissues.
Answer
  • RBC
  • WBC
  • 2
  • 3
  • fasting
  • fed
  • plasma
  • blood
  • glucose
  • glycogen
  • brain,
  • liver

Question 29

Question
The other priority in the [blank_start]fasting[blank_end] state is the need to mobilize [blank_start]fatty[blank_end] acids from [blank_start]adipose[blank_end] tissue, and the synthesis and release of ketone bodies from the [blank_start]liver[blank_end] to supply [blank_start]energy[blank_end] to all other tissues.
Answer
  • fasting
  • fed
  • fatty
  • amino
  • starchy
  • adipose
  • muscle
  • carbohydrate
  • liver
  • kidneys
  • energy

Question 30

Question
Hepatic _________ maintains blood glucose
Answer
  • glycogenolysis
  • glucose synthase
  • glycogen metabolism
  • osmolarity
  • glucofructokinase

Question 31

Question
Which of these are used in the liver for gluconeogenesis?
Answer
  • lactate
  • glycerol
  • alanine
  • glucose

Question 32

Question
What cycle is important in hepatic gluconeogenesis?
Answer
  • the cori cycle
  • the acetyl CoA cycle
  • the plasma cycle
  • cycle against suicide
  • glucose cycle

Question 33

Question
What cannon be used for NET glucose synthesis?
Answer
  • acetyl CoA
  • lactate
  • glycerol
  • alanine

Question 34

Question
What proteins from muscle are important for net glucose synthesis?
Answer
  • alanine
  • glutamine
  • asphargine
  • calamine
  • glucomine

Question 35

Question
When is the postabsoprtive state?
Answer
  • once you stop eating
  • after an overnight fast
  • during the fed state
  • at the end of the fed state

Question 36

Question
What is the early phase of starvation?
Answer
  • gluconeogenic phase
  • glycolysis phase
  • fasting phase
  • fed phase
  • hepatomatic phase

Question 37

Question
How long does the gluconeogenic phase last?
Answer
  • until the 2nd or 3rd day of absolute starvation
  • until the end of the 1st day of absolute starvation
  • until the 2nd or 3rd week of absolute starvation
  • until the the 7th day of absolute starvation

Question 38

Question
When is the period of adaptation to starvation (approx) ?
Answer
  • over the first 3 weeks
  • over the first 5 days
  • over the 1st week
  • over the first year

Question 39

Question
During the phase of adaptation to starvation what happens to the active thyroid hormone?
Answer
  • levels increase
  • levels decrease
  • it becomes more effective
  • it becomes less effective

Question 40

Question
When does the period of adapted starvation begin?
Answer
  • from 3 weeks onwards
  • from 3 days onwards
  • from 7 weeks onwards
  • from 7 days onwards

Question 41

Question
Initially during fasting, levels of fatty acids in the blood are...
Answer
  • Raised
  • Decreased
  • Normal

Question 42

Question
During fasting in the liver, fatty acid oxidation provides
Answer
  • ATP for gluconeogenis
  • ATP for glycogenolysis
  • ADP for gluconeogenis
  • ADP for glycogenolysis

Question 43

Question
During fasting, when ,Evelyn of ketone bodies (that are released from the liver) are high, they supply the brain, completely replacing glucose
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 44

Question
Ketone bodies prevent...
Answer
  • Muscle wasting by decreasing protein degradation
  • Wasting of the brain by decreasing protein degradation
  • Fatty acid oxidation
  • Hunger
  • Lethargy

Question 45

Question
During the fasting state the pancreas released...
Answer
  • Glucagon
  • Fatty acids
  • Bile
  • Ketones

Question 46

Question
Basal energy requirements can be reduced by reducing production of the active thyroid hormone up to
Answer
  • 25%
  • 50%
  • 100%
  • 75%
  • 10%

Question 47

Question
Late stage fasting occurs after...
Answer
  • 3 hours
  • 3 days
  • 10-12 hours
  • 6 hours
  • 1 day

Question 48

Question
During late stage fasting...
Answer
  • There is little to no glycogen left
  • The body is dependent on hepatic gluconeogenesis
  • Gbuconeogensis occurs primarily from lactate glycerol and alanine

Question 49

Question
Which of these occur in the liver in fasting?
Answer
  • Increased glycogen degradation
  • Increased gluconeogenesis
  • Increased fatty acid oxidation
  • Increased synthesis of ketone bodies
  • Increased degradation of TAGs

Question 50

Question
Which of these occur in adipose tissue during fasting?
Answer
  • Carbohydrate metabolism
  • GLUT4 depressed - decreased glucose uptake
  • Increased degradation of TAG
  • Increase release of FAs
  • Decreased uptake of FAs
  • Increased FA oxidation

Question 51

Question
Resting muscle uses .... as a fuel source during fasting
Answer
  • Fatty acids
  • Glycogen stores

Question 52

Question
During fasting which of these does exercising muscle use as fuel?
Answer
  • Glycogen stores
  • Fatty acids

Question 53

Question
What becomes the dominant fuel source in muscle during fasting once all other sources are gone?
Answer
  • Lactate
  • TAG from adipose tissue
  • Glycogen
  • Fatty acids

Question 54

Question
In early fasting the brain exclusively uses...
Answer
  • Glucose
  • Ketones
  • Fatty acids
  • Proteins

Question 55

Question
After 2 weeks of starvation the brain uses ... as a fuel source?
Answer
  • Glucose
  • Ketones
  • Protein
  • Fatty acids

Question 56

Question
Which of these are true about the kidney in long term fasting?
Answer
  • Contains enzymes for gluconeogenesis including glucose 6 phosphate
  • In late fasting 50% of gluconeogenesis occurs here
  • Maintains pH balance
  • Counteracts acidosis caused by raised ketone bodies in the plasma
  • AlphaKG is used with ammonia as a substrate for gluconeogenesis
  • Glutamine is converted to alphKG
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