Bio Chemistry

charlesm2000
Mind Map by charlesm2000, updated more than 1 year ago
charlesm2000
Created by charlesm2000 over 6 years ago
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finals review

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Bio Chemistry
  1. Carbon (four binding sights)
    1. Organic Macromolecules
      1. Lipids
        1. Fats, oils, waxes, hormones
          1. Phospolipids
            1. Phospholipid bilayer - cell membrane
              1. Polar phosphate head with fatty acid tail
            2. Functions
              1. Enrgy storage (twice as much as carbohydrates)
                1. Cell membrane
                  1. Cushions/insulates organs and body
                    1. Hormones
                      1. Waxes
                      2. Saturated Fats
                        1. Saturated = filled, all carbons are bound to two hydrogens
                        2. Unsaturated Fats
                          1. unsaturated = not filled, not all carbons are paired with two hydrogens, atleast two carbons are double bound to eachother
                        3. Carbohydrates
                          1. Sugars
                            1. Monosaccharides
                              1. Disaccharides
                                1. Polysaccharides
                                2. Functions
                                  1. Store and Release "quick" energy
                                    1. Structural components of plants and insects
                                  2. Nucleic Acids
                                    1. DNA/RNA
                                      1. Functions
                                        1. Stores Genetic Info
                                          1. Transfers Information
                                          2. Nucleotides
                                            1. Phosphate Group - 5 Carbon Sugar - Nitrogen Base
                                              1. Ribose or Deoxyribose
                                                1. Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine, Uracil
                                                  1. Thymine only in DNA
                                                    1. Uracil only in RNA
                                                      1. Purines (double ring nitrogen base)
                                                        1. Adenine
                                                          1. Guanine
                                                          2. Pyrimidines (Single ring nitrogen base)
                                                            1. Cytosine
                                                              1. Thymine
                                                                1. Uracil
                                                        2. Proteins
                                                          1. Functions
                                                            1. Hormones
                                                              1. Movement
                                                                1. Immune System
                                                                  1. Enzymes
                                                                    1. Function of enzymes
                                                                      1. Acts as a biological catalyst in chemical reactions, speeds up reaction without affecting itself
                                                                      2. How it works
                                                                        1. Substrate(s) binds to the active site of the enzyme, enzyme then either adds (anabolism) the substrates or breaks (catabolism) the substrate.
                                                                          1. Anabolism
                                                                            1. Lock-and-Key method
                                                                              1. Induced fit method
                                                                      3. Structure
                                                                        1. Central Carbon
                                                                          1. Amino Group
                                                                            1. Carboxyl Group
                                                                              1. R Group (Variable Group)
                                                                                1. Gives unique chemical properties to each amino acid
                                                                              2. Peptide bond joins amino acids
                                                                              3. Elements
                                                                                1. Lipids - C,H,O
                                                                                  1. Proteins - C,H,O,N
                                                                                    1. Nucleic Acids - C,H,O,N,P
                                                                                      1. Carbohydrates - C,H,O
                                                                                  2. Monomers
                                                                                    1. Lipids - fatty acids
                                                                                      1. Proteins - Amino Acids
                                                                                        1. Nucleic Acids - Nucleotides
                                                                                          1. Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides
                                                                                          2. Polymers
                                                                                            1. Lipids - Triglycerides
                                                                                              1. Proteins - Polypeptides
                                                                                                1. Nucleic Acids - DNA or RNA
                                                                                                  1. Carbohydrates - Polysaccharides
                                                                                                  2. pH - Acidity or Alkalinity of a substance
                                                                                                    1. Acidic - Low pH
                                                                                                      1. Alkaline - High pH
                                                                                                      2. Polar molecules - equal sharing of electrons
                                                                                                        1. Non-Polar molecules - unequal sharing of electrons
                                                                                                          1. Bonds
                                                                                                            1. Hydrogen
                                                                                                              1. Weak bond formed between two hydrogen atoms
                                                                                                              2. Covalent
                                                                                                                1. Strong bond formed from the sharing of valence electrons
                                                                                                                2. Ionic
                                                                                                                  1. When molecules take electrons from the other
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