According to Erickson, when an individual fails to develop a strong sense of identity, the
individual will have troubles with the development of:
Super's model of career development would be in agreement with all of the following statements except:
The therapist should assemble and process career data to establish possible courses of action, possible results, and to determine the probability that each outcome will develop.
The client and therapist should explore career maturity and self-concept.
Sessions with the client should occur on a regular basis.
Self-fulfillment in a career path should be a priority.
When all the test items on a given test have a high positive correlation, what would you say regarding the validity of this instrument?
Low internal differential
High content validity
High internal consistency reliability
High construct reliability
What is the basic function of Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972?
To proscribe discrimination against women in federal hiring practices.
To prohibit discrimination in educational agencies and institutions that accept federal assistance.
To proscribe race, religious, gender, and ethnically based discrimination in recognized American labor organizations.
To prohibit discrimination in all public and private college faculties.
Last month, Rob and Rhonda, both in their early sixties, lost their home to foreclosure. Due to their age, they feel that they have no time to recover financially from their losses. Rob lost his pension when he was given the chance to retire with severance pay from his job last year. Rhonda and Rob are in your office, and Rhonda asks for your help. Rhonda informs you that Rob appears to be depressed due to the recent losses and has lost interest in her and their marriage. Rhonda also tells you that she has been unsuccessful in trying to motivate Rob in any way. Rob blames Rhonda for not agreeing to allow the family to move to Georgia to accept a position with another company saying he would still be employed if she had not stood in his way. Rhonda tells you that her entire family lives nearby. Rhonda is very close to her mother emotionally, and she does not want to move away from them. Rhonda says she is totally frustrated with the whole situation. In Bowenian therapy, your goal would be:
Assess patterns of emotional reactivity (process), help Rob and Rhonda get past blaming each other for the situation, and look at their own role in the problem
Help Rob reframe his situation into positives and set goals for what he could be doing instead of being depressed
Help the family find the solution to their "problem"
Help the couple experience their feelings and help them learn to care more for each other
According to Freud, in the Anal stage, an anal-retentive personality may develop. What is the fixation of this personality?
The purpose of Aronson's Jigsaw Classroom technique is to:
Reduce intergroup conflict by facilitating rewarding, intergroup cooperation.
Group subjects/clients according to ability/achievement levels.
Mainstream children of different cultures.
Fit together the missing pieces relating to culture.
If you have designed a test that measures military leadership and want to explore if there are other constructs that are responsible for military leadership, you would probably want to use which of the following techniques?
Pearson Product Moment Correlation
In Urie Brofenbrenner's ecological systems theory, the systems including the setting where a child lives is referred to as which of the following?
The ABCs in REBT are:
Activating event, belief, consequent feeling.
Activating event, behavior, consequent feeling.
Antecedent, behavior, consequence of behavior.
Antecedent, belief, consequence of behavior.
Negative reinforcement is defined as:
The strengthening of a behavioral response by reducing or eliminating an aversive stimulus.
The taking away of a positive reinforcement.
Eliminating the learned response.
A & B
Albert Ellis thinks that the therapeutic relationship is:
The responsibility of the client
Moderately important to the therapeutic success.
Minimally important to the therapeutic success.
Extremely important to the therapeutic success.
The Tarasoff decision does not have a significant effect on which one of the following issues:
The three aspects of David Olson's Family Circumplex Model are:
Isolation, communication, and bonding.
Cohesion, communication, and acceptance.
Cohesion, flexibility, and communication.
Power, acquiescence, and agreement.
Group interactions among members are focused on an individual's description of an event in one member's life. Members comment and suggest what this individual should have done. The group members are focusing on the past, which suggests that the group is in which stage?
You can't seem to get your daughter to come home at the time that both of you have agreed upon. You are thinking of using punishment to "help" her remember what time she should be home. The main reason for NOT using punishment as a method of altering this behavior is:
That punishment suppresses undesired behavior temporarily.
Because it is likely to cause a generalized response.
Because it usually will not cause immediate suppression of unwanted behavior.
Because it is likely to increase the rate of the unwanted behavior.
If Millon, MMPI, and CAT scores are used to predict GPA in a psychology program, then the statistical technique used to accomplish this would be:
Analysis of covariance
Systematic desensitization has been found useful with psychological problems in which the primary difficulty is:
Maslow's needs for growth include:
Belonging and safety.
Security, stimulation, and esteem.
Esteem, love, and self-actualization.
Security and esteem.
A client has held the same job for the past 15 years since graduating from college and is currently bored and unstimulated by her present position. The client continues to be late and does not take pride in her work. A session with the client indicates that she took the position as an accountant because of her parents' influence, but her true interest was in the arts. Further work with the client indicates, however, that her work-related values are consistent with her present job. You would evaluate her current difficulty to be:
Incongruence between interests and values.
More testing is needed.
Consistency of Holland codes
Current information indicates mid-life crisis.
A client is frequently admitted to the hospital for somatic disorders. Medical examination and testing conclude that an organic basis for the symptoms cannot be established. For lack of understanding, the client dismisses the notion of how his emotional state is related to his somatic disorders and refuses to be seen by the staff psychiatrist. The psychiatrist refers the client to the therapist for discharge and suggests that the therapist develop an aftercare plan that will keep the client from continued visits to the hospital. The therapist might:
Explain to the client that there is no medical evidence that suggests a physical cause for his symptoms.
Work with the client to recognize real difficulties and determine how these can be altered to improve his quality of life.
Inform the family about the absence of a physical cause for the symptoms and ask them to make sure the client doesn't visit the hospital unless he is truly in need.
Recommend mental health literature so that he may develop some insight into the psychological aspects of his physical complaints and seek psychiatric treatment.
Steve and Beth force their son Eddie into therapy because he is failing classes at school and acting out. What might a strategic therapist do?
Help the family recognize patterns by using a genogram.
See the problem as external.
Help the family with devising more effective problem-solving skills.
Shift family alliances.
You have a relatively passive client who is going to an assertiveness-training weekend. After the weekend, your client reports back to you that at first, the techniques being practiced and discussed made him feel uneasy, distressed, and unsettled. These feelings would be consistent with:
Sam and Julie were married for 23 years with the marriage ending in divorce. During the marriage, Julie felt unloved by Sam, a money-motivated man who catered to his mother's wishes to the detriment of their marriage. Sam hoped to gain a large inheritance from his mother, a retired physician, by following her wishes. During the marriage, Sam requested that the couple seek marital counseling so that he would appear to have done everything to save the marriage before filing for divorce. The couple entered couples counseling. During counseling, in an individual session, Sam disclosed to the therapist that he had an affair during the marriage and that made him decide to go ahead with a divorce. During a subsequent couples session, Julie questions the therapist about whether Sam admitted to having an affair which Julie highly suspected. She said she needed to know for her peace of mind. Sam disclosed his extramarital affair in an individual session with his therapist. Therapists must decide who is the client and whose interests they will serve in therapy, protecting the client from unauthorized disclosure of personal information. This is an issue of:
Therapeutic power and responsibility
In Erikson's psychosocial stages of development, each stage presents a conflict which the individual must resolve before advancing to the next stage. Which conflict is associated with Erickson's fourth stage - the school age?
Identity vs. role confusion
Industry vs. inferiority
Intimacy vs. isolation
Integrity vs. despair
In the initial meeting with a patient, he tells you that he feels insanely jealous and has never been so angry in his life. The reason for his anger is that his girlfriend of five years currently is seeing someone else. Your gut feelings tell you that besides being depressed, your patient may suffer from poor impulse control. The first thing you should do in this situation is:
Talk to the patient about confidentiality and what you might have to do depending on his disclosure.
Start therapy with the patient to determine if he might harm himself or others.
Have the patient go through a normal assessment protocol before starting therapy.
Excuse yourself and call his girlfriend, indicating what you feel might happen because of your patient's state of mind.
Zunker, in his analysis of reasons why career planning and development centers are not focused in their mission and goals in high schools, indicates all of the following except:
Models for working with children do not exist.
Children are not interested in career counseling until much later in their lives.
Goals and functions of career-placement programs for children are lacking.
There is a lack of training in the career counseling area for children.
A woman whose husband has just committed suicide brings her daughter to therapy to have the daughter work on her grief. The daughter and her father were very close, and now that he is gone, the girl is upset. While dealing with this dilemma, you realize the mother also is suffering and needs to deal with her grief issues. You might:
Do as the mother wishes and do therapy with the daughter.
Continue to see the daughter in individual therapy and have the woman attend a support group.
Deal with the mother's grief without her knowing it when you meet to give her reports on the progress of her daughter.
Work with the two surviving family members and also pull in any extended family members for therapy.
Your client states, "My mother is in the hospital with cancer, and she is not eating, and my sisters are not getting along. I see my mother a few times a week, but I think that there is more that I should be doing." As the therapist, you respond, "Your mom is having difficulty, and your sisters are having problems?" Your response is an example of:
Creating and structuring boundaries between multi-generational families would create:
No change in differentiation
No change in enmeshment
Marci and Ben come to your office complaining that their marriage is in trouble. Ben accuses Marci of having affairs when she talks to people on the phone for her growing travel business. Marci is a well-educated woman who wants her husband to trust her. Marci says Ben is "paranoid" and does not know how to make Ben trust her. Ben is Marci's second husband, and he presents as dependent, clingy and suspicious. He appears to be living on Marci's income due to a disability that would allow him to work, however, he refuses to make an effort to find employment. Ben appears angry, frustrated, and speaks loudly to Marci during their session with you. Marci is openly sad and frustrated and ready, she says, to leave the marriage but is conflicted about her decision. Marci tells you that yesterday she hung up the phone on her father, in anger, for a comment he made regarding the marital situation. Marci's father is also on disability, able to do some work, but refuses to seek employment, making life difficult for Marci's mother. "You hung up the phone on your father yesterday. You complained about your husband not trusting you, and that you are angry. Based on what you have told me, I think your anger is deflected from your husband. He does the same thing, and you are afraid to tell him, and that is why you got angry at your father." This is an example of a(n) ____________ approach to therapy.
Twenty-seven-year-old Jenna reports that she is seeking therapy because the court mandated that she engage in five sessions of therapy. She comes to your office and appears to not be particularly interested in deriving benefit from her therapy sessions; she just wants to complete the sessions and terminate therapy. Jenna reports to you that she may file insurance claim forms to pay for her sessions and that she needs to have proof for the court that she attended all five sessions. Jenna signs a release of information form, allowing you to release the appropriate documentation to the court. Assume that you are Jenna's therapist and before the initial session you learn that Jenna may pay for her therapy sessions through her insurance plan stating that she has financial problems and therapy may not be possible if you do not accept insurance as payment for therapy. What payment related issue(s) must you discuss with Jenna prior to the onset of therapy?
Treatment may be discontinued when a client is no longer able to pay for services.
Lack of an adequate financial support system can negatively impact therapy.
You do not accept insurance for service payment.
Payment for services is confidential according to HIPAA laws.
SIGI and CHOICES are computer software designed to use interests and aptitudes to help match clients to careers. These programs are based on the theories of:
Sol has come to you, a career counselor, because he is having difficulty in determining which career path to choose. On the one hand, Sol likes to be clean, neat, orderly, and to know what is expected of him. On the other hand, Sol likes to be spontaneous, creative, and free to express his feelings. Chances are Sol's Holland code is:
Which one of the following measurements would have the highest frequency of reliability?
Beck's Depression Inventory
When beginning a counseling relationship, you are ethically required to
write very few details of what is said in your session.
explain that everything said in your sessions will remain confidential.
inform the patient of the limits of confidentiality.
keep a detailed record of what is said during each session
As you begin a counseling relationship, it is important to
answer as few of the patient’s questions as possible until the direction of the therapeutic process is naturally revealed during the initial hour.
know if the patient is unaware of your counseling plan.
give the patient little or no choice in the direction of counseling as it could prove detrimental to the therapeutic process.
jointly decide, between patient and counselor, how the counseling process will proceed.
A client arrives for counseling with the presenting complaint of relationship difficulties. She goes on to describe that she has had multiple abortions, and seems to use abortion as a birth control method. You are personally opposed to abortion. How should your personal beliefs impact the therapeutic relationship?
Your personal belief system will make it impossible for you to effectively counsel this client, and you should refer her elsewhere.
Your personal belief system should not have any bearing on the therapeutic relationship.
Your anti-abortion stance is best ignored and discounted while working with this client.
Your position on abortion will enhance the therapeutic relationship as it will make you more effective in teaching your client how to properly view abortion.
You have been involved in a counseling relationship with a client for six months, when he presents you with a small gift. What should you do?
Decline the gift with an explanation of why it’s inappropriate for you to accept it
Accept the gift and thank your client
Request that the gift be given to you only once therapy is complete
Accept or decline depending upon the circumstances
You are court-ordered to disclose confidential information about a client you are counseling. What do you do?
Divulge any and all information about the client as court-ordered
Limit, as much as possible, any possibly damaging personal information
Obtain written permission from your client to share confidential information
Both "Limit, as much as possible..." and "Obtain written permission from your client...".
What should you do if your client requests to see his confidential file?
Immediately give your client access to the file.
Accept or decline depending upon the circumstances.
Explain to your client that such information is confidential and for the counselor’s eyes only.
Ignore the request.
You are a counselor with several clients, and at the same time you are adjusting to a difficult divorce. You aren’t sleeping or eating well, find you are highly distractible, and generally are less in-touch with your emotional state. You should
be alert to your mental status, and be able to determine if continuing with your clients poses any threat of being detrimental to the counseling process.
seek psychological help for yourself
continue to see your clients as you regularly would.
discontinue client contact until you have adjusted to your new life situation.
A former client of yours has been arrested for a crime. As his former counselor, you are called to perform a forensic evaluation. What is your responsibility in this case?
You should perform the evaluation because you are particularly well-versed on the mental state of the individual in question.
You have a legal responsibility to comply with the request.
It is not considered ethical to perform a forensic evaluation on a current or past client, so you should decline.
It doesn’t matter if you perform the evaluation or not.
You are the supervisor for a new counselor, and are asked to attend her wedding. Would it be ethical to do so?
Yes, but only if you don’t bring a gift.
Yes, you should be able to attend her wedding without a breach of ethics.
it would depend on your role in the festivities.
It would not be ethical to attend her wedding.
While involved with a research study, you learn that several of your students are using confidential material in an unethical manner. You had no prior knowledge of this, and all of your safeguards for professional practice were appropriate. Are you, as the principal researcher, responsible for the student’s behavior?
Yes, you are ultimately responsible.
No, if professional safeguards were in place, you are not responsible.
Only the students who acted unethically are to be held responsible.
You would only be responsible if you had knowledge of what was occurring and did nothing to stop it.
When publishing research, it is important to
give credit to other contributors or sources.
All of these answer choices
submit material to only one journal at a time.
When a conflict arises between the American Counseling Association (ACA) Code of Ethics and a governing authority, which takes precedence?
Ultimately, the law may be adhered to over the Code of Ethics.
Ethics always come first, regardless of the circumstances.
Neither. The wishes of the client prevail.
There are no standards in place for this issue; it’s left up to the individual.
An ethics violation should NOT be reported when
a counselor has been retained to review another counselor who is in question.
there is a personal relationship between the violator and the counselor who noted the violation.
confidentiality rights would be violated.
both "a counselor has been retained..." and "confidentiality rights would be violated".
What does multicultural/diversity counseling refer to?
An approach that all counselors should ethically be aware of.
Counseling that recognizes diversity and approaches beneficial to specific groups.
Both "Counseling that recognizes diversity..." and "An approach that all counselors...".
Counseling that attempts to minimize the cultural aspects of particular groups.
Most ethical issues are related to
“duty to warn.”
an inappropriate relationship between counselor and client.