Social Influence Quiz- Psychology (Version 2)

Grace Fawcitt
Quiz by , created about 1 year ago

INCOMPLETE **This resource is an amended version of the other Social Influence quiz- it contains the same information, but in a more accessible format** AQA Psychology Social Influence quiz for AS. Covers all topics in the AQA Psychology textbook, including researchers, evaluations and theories. Made for my own benefit, so not all questions will help you out, but feel free to use.

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Grace Fawcitt
Created by Grace Fawcitt about 1 year ago
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Question 1

Question
Label the top table with the correct number (level of conformity) and correct letter (effects), as are found in the bottom table
Answer
  • 2
  • 1
  • 3
  • C
  • B
  • A

Question 2

Question
Informational Social Influence: the need to be [blank_start]right[blank_end]. Often occurs in [blank_start]new[blank_end] situations in which we are unsure how to behave, so we look to others for guidance. Usually, one person or group is seen to be more of an expert. Normative Social Influence: the need to be [blank_start]liked[blank_end]. This is the preference to gain social approval. It usually occurs in situations with strangers when you fear rejection. However, it can also occur with friends when you want to gain their approval.
Answer
  • right
  • liked
  • new
  • familiar
  • liked
  • right

Question 3

Question
Name an advantage to Normative Social Influence and Informational Social Influence
Answer
  • There is research to support these theories e.g. Lucas (2006) and Asch (1951
  • Individual differences have little effect on how these explanations of conformity affect our behaviour
  • A distinct separation between NSI and ISI is proposed, suggesting there is no crossover between the two. This means they can easily be distinguished when studying conformity

Question 4

Question
Name two disadvantages to Normative Social Influence and Informational Social Influence
Answer
  • May not be two-process - they work together
  • Individual differences such as personality affect conformity
  • Contradictory evidence provided by Asch's study

Question 5

Question
Which researcher investigated conformity, and when?
Answer
  • Asch, 1951/55
  • Milgram, 1963
  • Hofling, 1966

Question 6

Question
What was Asch's sample for his conformity study?
Answer
  • 123 male students
  • 40 men between the ages of 20-50 years old
  • 22 nurses

Question 7

Question
Which of the following descriptions best describes Asch's study?
Answer
  • Stanford Prison Experiment- conformity to the social roles of guards and prisoners
  • Lines of different lengths- confederates gave incorrect answers when asked which line was most similar to 'Line X'. The naive participants' conformity was assessed.
  • Shocking memory test- naive participants believed they were teaching another naive participant in order to help improve memory, however had to administer fake shocks up to 450V at 15V intervals. This was testing obedience.

Question 8

Question
What percentage of Asch's participants conformed at least once?
Answer
  • 25%
  • 37.5
  • 75
  • 3

Question 9

Question
When interviewed afterwards, Asch's participants (1951) said that they conformed because they wanted to avoid rejection. Which type of conformity is this?
Answer
  • Ingratiational Social Influence
  • Informational Social Influence
  • Normative Social Influence

Question 10

Question
Label the table with the effects Asch's variations had on conformity.
Answer
  • Over 3- conformity leveled out at 75%
  • Conformity fell
  • Conformity fell due to social support
  • Conformity increased due to ISI

Question 11

Question
Evaluation of Asch's conformity study The study was a child of its times- America was in a [blank_start]conformist[blank_end] era, possibly explaining the results both in terms of American culture but also meaning that the results can't be generalised today. The [blank_start]artificial task[blank_end] could have led to demand characteristics, suggesting the participants' behaviour was [blank_start]unnatural[blank_end]. The study also had [blank_start]limited[blank_end] application, both because women could be more conformist, but also because it took place in an [blank_start]individualist[blank_end] culture (America), so can't be generalised to [blank_start]collectivist[blank_end] cultures. Asch's study suffered the ethical issues of [blank_start]deception[blank_end]; the participants' didn't know that the other men were all confederates.
Answer
  • conformist
  • artificial task
  • unnatural
  • natural
  • limited
  • real life
  • individualist
  • collectivist
  • deception
  • psychological harm

Question 12

Question
Which researcher investigated conformity to social roles, and when?
Answer
  • Zimbardo, 1971
  • Milgram, 1963
  • Asch, 1951

Question 13

Question
What was Zimbardo's sample for his conformity to social roles study?
Answer
  • 123 male students
  • 22 nurses
  • 40 men between the ages of 20-50 years old
  • Volunteer sample of students who were deemed emotionally stable

Question 14

Question
When did Zimbardo's study have to be stopped, and why?
Answer
  • 6 days into a 14 day study due to the negative effects on the prisoners' psychological and physical wellbeing
  • 2 days into a 6 day study due to prisoners rebelling
  • 4 days into a 6 day study due to the guards asking to be removed from the study

Question 15

Question
What kind of behaviour did the 'guards' demonstrate in Zimbardo's study of conformity to social roles?
Answer
  • They aimed to divide the prisoners, harassed them, and became hostile.
  • They attempted to unite the prisoners who rebelled, but without success
  • They became subdued and depressed as a result of their roles

Question 16

Question
What kind of behaviour did the prisoners' demonstrate in Zimbardo's study of conformity to social roles?
Answer
  • They became aggressive and hostile, ultimately overthrowing the guards
  • They initially rebelled, but ended up becoming subdued and depressed
  • They embraced their roles, happy to obey the guards

Question 17

Question
'In Zimbardo's study, we can come to the conclusion that both prisoners and guards conformed to social roles, suggesting situation has a powerful effect on our behaviour' Is this statement true or false?
Answer
  • True
  • False

Question 18

Question
Name two advantages of Zimbardo's study into conformity to social roles.
Answer
  • Good control of variables- the emotional stability of participants was ensured, so emotional instability wasn't a confounding variable.
  • Good internal validity- 90% of prisoners' conversations were based on prison life, suggesting they believed it to be real.
  • Research support from Reicher and Haslam's partial replication of Zimbardo's study
  • Objective assessment of the participants' behaviour as Zimbardo played the role of prison warden

Question 19

Question
Name four disadvantages of Zimbardo's study of conformity to social roles
Answer
  • Lack of realism- participants were play-acting based on stereotypes from film
  • Role of dispositional factors- personality may affect conformity to social roles
  • Lack of research support- Reicher and Haslam's replication found that prisoners rebelled and took control of the guards
  • Methodological/ethical issues- Zimbardo was prison warden so had a subjective view, plus the prisoners suffered psychological
  • Ethical issues- prisoners were referred to by their full names, leading to a lack of confidentiality
  • Poor control of variables, such as the influence of emotional instability
  • Poor internal validity as the participants were assigned to each role based on personality

Question 20

Question
Which researcher investigated obedience, and when?
Answer
  • Asch, 1951
  • Zimbardo, 1971
  • Milgram, 1963
  • Adorno, 1950

Question 21

Question
What prompted Milgram to investigate obedience?
Answer
  • Nazi Germans in the Second World War
  • Americans in the Civil War
  • La Guerra Civil Española- the role of the nationalists

Question 22

Question
What was Milgram's sample for his obedience study?
Answer
  • 123 male students
  • 40 men between the ages of 20-50 years old, paid $4.50
  • 22 nurses
  • Volunteer sample of students from Stanford

Question 23

Question
Which of the following descriptions best describes Milgram's study?
Answer
  • Shocking memory test- naive participants believed they were teaching another naive participant in order to help improve memory, however had to administer fake shocks up to 450V at 15V intervals. This was testing obedience.
  • Stanford Prison Experiment- conformity to social roles
  • Line of best fit- participants had to match the most similar line to Line X, but the naive participants was in a group of confederates who gave consistently wrong answers. Conformity was assessed.

Question 24

Question
In Milgram's study, the researcher gave four responses when the participant asked to stop. What was the general phrasing of them?
Answer
  • 'You have the right to withdraw'
  • 'The experiment requires that you continue'
  • 'You're a weak man if you don't continue'
  • 'You aren't allowed to stop because then we can't assess obedience'

Question 25

Question
Results of Milgram's study [blank_start]0[blank_end]% of participants stopped before 300V [blank_start]12.5[blank_end]% stopped at 300V [blank_start]65[blank_end]% continued to 450V
Answer
  • 0
  • 3
  • 35
  • 12.5
  • 65
  • 12.5
  • 65
  • 0
  • 3
  • 35
  • 65
  • 0
  • 12.5
  • 3
  • 35

Question 26

Question
What was the qualitative data that Milgram collected?
Answer
  • Number of volts participants continued to
  • Reactions to stress e.g. seizures, sweating
  • Participants were asked how they felt every time they increased the voltage. There responses were recorded.

Question 27

Question
What percentage of Milgram's participants claimed they were 'glad they took part' when answering a follow-up questionnaire?
Answer
  • 3%
  • 84%
  • 65%
  • 0%
  • 98%

Question 28

Question
Name three disadvantages of Milgram's study.
Answer
  • Low internal validity- participants didn't believe the shocks were real
  • Social identity theory as an alternate explanation- this suggests that the participants identified with the experimenter and therefore with the science of the study. The first three prods appealed for help with the science, while the final prod demanded obedience. No participants continued after the 4th prod.
  • Ethical issues- Milgram deceived his participants, who didn't know the learner was a confederate, that their role was pre-determined and that the shocks were fake. Some also suffered psychological and physical harm e.g. seizures
  • Ethical issues- lack of confidentiality as the participants were referred to be their full names in Milgram's scientific report
  • Poor external validity- the study didn't actually show the relationship between the experimenter and participants. This may be a result of it being a lab study
  • Contradictory replication called 'The Game of Death' in which only 20% of participants went to full voltage

Question 29

Question
Name three advantages of Milgram's study
Answer
  • Supporting evidence from Sheridan and King (1972) who replicated the experiment but with puppies. 54% of males and 100% of females delivered a 'fatal' shock to the puppy.
  • Good external validity- despite being a lab study, the experiment did show the relationship between the experimenter and participants. Hofling (1966) conducted a study on nurses in which 21 out of 22 nurses obeyed orders from a fake doctor despite it being prohibited, suggesting people do obey perceived authority figures.
  • Supporting replication from 'The Game of Death' TV show, in which 80% of participants administered fake shocks of 460V. They displayed similar distressed behaviour as Milgram's participants.
  • Ethically good- participants felt minimal distress and were informed in the brief about the true aims of the study
  • High internal validity- all participants reported believing that the shocks were real
  • Researcher bias- because Milgram was the experimenter, he had a subjective view on the participants' behaviour and his behaviour may have influenced theirs, hence reducing the validity of the study

Question 30

Question
Fill in the blank spaces with the correct situational variables, as proposed by Milgram [blank_start]Proximity[blank_end]- 1. when the teacher and learner were in the same room. 2. when the teacher had to force the learner's hand onto a shock pad [blank_start]Location[blank_end]- the experiment took place in a rundown building [blank_start]Uniform[blank_end]- the experimenter in a lab coat was replaced by an ordinary person (confederate) in everyday clothing
Answer
  • Proximity
  • Location
  • Uniform

Question 31

Question
Fill in the x-axis of the graph with the appropriate way in which Milgram tested situational variables (proximity, location, uniform)
Answer
  • Baseline study
  • Run down office
  • Teacher and learner in the same room
  • Teacher forces learner's hand
  • Teacher receives the orders via phone
  • Member of public steps in for researcher

Question 32

Question
Name three advantages of situational variables
Answer
  • Research support- Bickman (1974) found that the same person wearing three different outfits (e.g. milkman, security guard) received very different responses when asking members of the public to pick up litter according to the uniform they wore.
  • Good internal validity- participants reported after the experiments that they believe the situations to be real and therefore acted naturally.
  • Cross-cultural replication- Miranda (1981) found an obedience rate of 90% in Spanish students, meaning Milgram's results aren't limited to America
  • Control of variables- Milgram systematically altered one variable at a time, so the cause of any changes in behaviour was easy to identify
  • Milgram's conclusions can be effectively applied to any culture, including collectivist cultures

Question 33

Question
Name three disadvantages of situational variables
Answer
  • Contradictory evidence- Bickman (1974) found that changing uniform had no significant effect on the public's behaviour when asked to pick up litter
  • Lack of internal validity- Orne and Holland suggested that participants didn't believe the situations were real, and therefore acted unnaturally
  • Can only apply to American culture
  • Smith and Bond (1998) pointed out that replications only took place in Western societies which aren't culturally different to the US
  • Smith and Bond (1998) pointed out that replications only took place in collectivist cultures which don't differ from American culture
  • Poor control of variables- when altering variables, Milgram often overlapped them, so it is difficult to identify the cause of any changes in obedience
  • The obedience alibi- Mandel (1998) argued that these explanations of obedience provide an excuse for evil behaviour

Question 34

Question
The agentic state as a socio-psychological factor affecting obedience Agentic state- this is a [blank_start]mental[blank_end] state in which we feel [blank_start]no personal responsibility[blank_end] for our actions because we believe ourselves to be acting for [blank_start]an authority figure[blank_end] as an agent. Agents experiences [blank_start]high[blank_end] anxiety but feel powerless to disobey, hence following evil leaders like Hitler.
Answer
  • mental
  • physical
  • social
  • no personal responsibility
  • high personal responsibility
  • an authority figure
  • the greater good
  • people without power
  • high
  • low
  • no

Question 35

Question
Which state typically allows us to disobey authority figures?
Answer
  • The agentic state
  • The autonomous state

Question 36

Question
The agentic state as a socio-psychological factor affecting obedience The autonomous state- this is when an individual feels [blank_start]personal responsibility[blank_end] for their actions, and therefore behaves according to [blank_start]their own principles[blank_end]. The agentic shift- this is the shift from [blank_start]autonomy to agency[blank_end], which Milgram suggested occurred when someone perceives someone else as [blank_start]an authority figure[blank_end].
Answer
  • personal responsibility
  • no personal responsibility
  • their own principles
  • the social norms
  • an authority figure's orders
  • autonomy to agency
  • agency to autonomy
  • an authority figure
  • inferior

Question 37

Question
Why do people remain in the agentic state?
Answer
  • Binding factors e.g. shifting responsibility to the victim, or denying they were doing any damage
  • The authority figure won't allow them to disobey
  • They can't exit the agentic state without first obeying the authority figure

Question 38

Question
Legitimacy of authority is a socio-psychological factor for [blank_start]obedience[blank_end] which suggests that, if we perceive someone as having legitimate and higher authority than us, we obey them. Authority is legitimate as a result of a person's position of [blank_start]power[blank_end] in the social hierarchy. Destructive authority involves [blank_start]legitimate[blank_end] authority figures taking advantage of their position to commit atrocities. For example, Hitler.
Answer
  • obedience
  • conformity
  • legitimate
  • illegitimate
  • power
  • vulnerability

Question 39

Question
Name two advantages of the socio-psychological factors affecting obedience (agentic state and legitimacy of authority)
Answer
  • Research support- Blass and Schmitt (2001) showed students videos from Milgram's study and asked who was responsible for the learner's 'suffering'; the experimenter, teacher, or learner? Most students answered the experimenter given the legitimacy of their authority.
  • Legitimacy of authority explains cultural differences- Kilham and Mann (1974) replicated Milgram's study in Australia and found 16% of pariticipants went to 450V, while Mantell (1971) found 85% of Germans went to 450V. This shows that, in different cultures, authority is more or less likely to be accepted as legitimate
  • The agentic state also explains why some people don't obey
  • Mandel (1998) found that Nazis who were told they had no choice but to shoot people in Poland went ahead with the shooting, supporting the agentic shoot.

Question 40

Question
Name two disadvantages of socio-psychological factors affecting obedience (agentic state and legitimacy of authority)
Answer
  • Contradictory evidence- Blass and Schmitt showed students films from Milgram's study and asked them who was responsible for harming the learner, and the students claimed the teacher was, contradicting the legitimacy of authority theory which would suggest the experimenter was responsible
  • Limited explanation- the agentic shift doesn't explain why some people will disobey. It also suggests Hofling's nurses should feel high anxiety when acting as agents, but they didn't.
  • Doesn't explain cultural differences- legitimacy of authority can't explain why some cultures are more or less likely to obey.
  • The obedience alibi- Mandel (1998) found that Nazis who had been told that they should shoot Polish civilians but could also be assigned other tasks still carried out the shootings, suggesting the soldiers acted autonomously.

Question 41

Question
Which researcher investigated dispositional factors as a factor affecting obedience, and when?
Answer
  • Adorno, 1950
  • Milgram, 1963
  • Asch, 1951
  • Zimbardo, 1971

Question 42

Question
Authoritarian Personality as a factor affecting obedience Adorno argued that [blank_start]high[blank_end] levels of obedience are actually a [blank_start]psychological[blank_end] disorder due to a person's personality. He used [blank_start]a questionnaire[blank_end] called the F-scale to assess unconscious attitudes to [blank_start]other races[blank_end], which would measure [blank_start]authoritarian[blank_end] personality. He suggested that people with an [blank_start]authoritarian[blank_end] personality were [blank_start]more[blank_end] susceptible to obeying authority figures and were dismissive to 'inferiors'. People who scored [blank_start]high[blank_end] in the F-scale identified with 'strong' people and were contemptuous of the weak. They were [blank_start]conscious[blank_end] of social status and hierarchy, and believed in rigid stereotypes.
Answer
  • high
  • low
  • psychological
  • social
  • a questionnaire
  • an interview
  • an observation
  • other races
  • obedience
  • authoritarian
  • authoritative
  • authoritarian
  • authoritative
  • more
  • less
  • high
  • low
  • conscious
  • dismissive

Question 43

Question
Adorno suggested an authoritarian personality developed as a result of [blank_start]harsh parenting[blank_end]; this includes [blank_start]strict[blank_end] discipline, [blank_start]high[blank_end] standards, [blank_start]severe[blank_end] criticism, and [blank_start]conditional[blank_end] love. This creates resentment which is later displaced onto [blank_start]'inferior' people.[blank_end]
Answer
  • harsh parenting
  • abusive relationships
  • relaxed parenting
  • maternal deprivation
  • strict
  • minimal
  • high
  • low
  • severe
  • minimal
  • conditional
  • unconditional
  • 'inferior' people.
  • authority figures.

Question 44

Question
Name an advantage of Adorno's theory of dispositional factors affecting obedience
Answer
  • Research support- Milgram conducted interviews with participants who went to the full 450V (were fully obedient) and found they scored highly on the F-scale.
  • Can explain behaviours carried out by a majority, such as Germans in the Second World War displaying anti-semitic behaviour
  • The F-scale deals both with right-wing authoritarian personality and left-wing authoritarian personality, suggesting it doesn't suffer from political bias

Question 45

Question
Name four disadvantages of Adorno's theory of dispositional factors affecting obedience
Answer
  • Contradictory evidence from Milgram- he conducted interviews with participants who were fully obedient (went to 450V), and found that they scored low on the F-scale, suggesting that they didn't have an authoritarian personality
  • Limited explanation- doesn't explain behaviours carried out by a majority e.g. anti-Semitic views in Nazi Germany
  • Political bias- the F-scale only measures the tendency towards extreme right-wing ideology, and doesn't take left-wing authoritarianism into account.
  • Political bias- the F-scale only measures the tendency towards extreme left-wing ideology, and doesn't take right-wing authoritarianism into account.
  • Methodological issues- the phrasing of the F-scale was all in the same 'direction'- ticking the same boxes down one side of the page would give you a high score in authoritarianism (acquiescence bias)
  • Can't determine causation- obedience and authoritarianism may be a result of a third factor, such as a low level of education
  • Limited explanation- doesn't explain behaviours carried out by a minority e.g. why only some people are authoritarian

Question 46

Question
Social Support Conformity- if other people are present who don't conform, it is [blank_start]easier[blank_end] to resist conformity. The non-conforming individual is a model, although if they start conforming, so will the observing person. Obedience- the pressure to obey can be [blank_start]reduced[blank_end] if another person disobeys. Milgram found that adding a dissenting confederate [blank_start]reduced[blank_end] full obedience from [blank_start]65[blank_end]% to 10%.
Answer
  • easier
  • harder
  • reduced
  • increased
  • reduced
  • increased
  • 65
  • 3
  • 35

Question 47

Question
Research support for social support as a way of resisting social influence Allen and Levine (1971) found that conformity [blank_start]decreased[blank_end] when a dissenting confederate was added to an Asch-type study.
Answer
  • decreased
  • increased
  • was unaffected

Question 48

Question
Which researcher investigated loci of control as an explanation of resistance to social influence, and when?
Answer
  • Rotter, 1966
  • Milgram, 1963
  • Asch, 1951
  • Adorno, 1950

Question 49

Question
Locus of control People with an internal locus of control believe that things that happen in their lives are mostly controlled by [blank_start]themselves.[blank_end] e.g. if they do well in an exam, it is because they [blank_start]worked hard[blank_end] People with an external locus of control believe that things that happen in their lives are mostly controlled by [blank_start]external forces i.e. luck[blank_end] e.g. if they do well in an exam, it is because they [blank_start]used a good text book[blank_end]
Answer
  • themselves.
  • external forces i.e. luck
  • worked hard
  • used a good text book

Question 50

Question
Loci of control are not just external or internal, they can also be high or low (e.g. a high internal LOC). What is this scale/sequence called?
Answer
  • The F-scale
  • A continuum
  • The LOC scale

Question 51

Question
Which type of person is most capable of resisting pressures to conform or obey?
Answer
  • High internal LOC
  • Low internal LOC
  • High external LOC
  • Low external LOC

Question 52

Question
People with a [blank_start]high internal[blank_end] LOC are most likely to resist social influence. This is because they [blank_start]take personal responsibility[blank_end] for their actions, so base their decisions on [blank_start]their own beliefs[blank_end] while resisting pressures from others. They are typically [blank_start]more[blank_end] self-confident, achievement-oriented, intelligent, and [blank_start]don't require[blank_end] social approval.
Answer
  • high internal
  • low internal
  • high external
  • low external
  • take personal responsibility
  • take no personal responsibility
  • their own beliefs
  • other's beliefs
  • more
  • less
  • don't require
  • require

Question 53

Question
Evaluation of LOC as an explanation for resisting social influence + Holland (1967) replicated Milgram's baseline study and measured if people were internals or externals. [blank_start]37%[blank_end] of internals didn't continue to the highest shock, compared to [blank_start]23%[blank_end] of externals. - Twenge (2004) analysed data of American LOC studies and found that although people are [blank_start]more external[blank_end], they are [blank_start]more[blank_end] resistant to obedience. This contradicts Rotter's theory.
Answer
  • 37%
  • 23%
  • more external
  • more
  • less
  • more internal

Question 54

Question
Minority Influence [blank_start]Consistency[blank_end]- the minority should keep the same beliefs over time and between individuals [blank_start]Commitment[blank_end]- when the minority demonstrates their dedication to their position e.g. personal sacrifices [blank_start]Flexibility[blank_end]- the minority should adapt their views and accept reasonable counter-arguments
Answer
  • Consistency
  • Commitment
  • Flexibility

Question 55

Question
Which type of conformity does minority influence usually lead to?
Answer
  • Compliance
  • Identification
  • Internalisation

Question 56

Question
The snowball effect in [blank_start]minority influence[blank_end]- as more people [blank_start]internalise the[blank_end] beliefs, the rate of conversion [blank_start]increases[blank_end] until the minority view becomes the majority.
Answer
  • minority influence
  • obedience
  • conformity to social roles
  • majority influence
  • internalise the
  • comply with the
  • identify with the
  • increases
  • decreases

Question 57

Question
Which researcher investigated minority influence, and when?
Answer
  • Moscovici, 1969
  • Milgram, 1963
  • Asch, 1951
  • Zimbardo, 1971

Question 58

Question
Moscovici, 1969, asked a group of [blank_start]6[blank_end] people to view a set of 36 blue-coloured slides that varied in intensity and state if they were green or blue. There were [blank_start]2[blank_end] confederates who consistently said green on 2/3 of the slides. The participants gave the same wrong answer on [blank_start]8[blank_end]% of the trials, with [blank_start]32[blank_end]% giving the same wrong answer on at least one trial. A second group was exposed to an inconsistent minority and agreement fell to 1.25%. A control group with no confederates gave the wrong answer on [blank_start]0.25[blank_end]% of trials.
Answer
  • 6
  • 123
  • 40
  • 3
  • 2
  • 3
  • 5
  • 12
  • 8
  • 1
  • 10
  • 50
  • 32
  • 48
  • 75
  • 23
  • 0.25
  • 0
  • 10
  • 3

Question 59

Question
Name two advantages of minority influence
Answer
  • Research support for consistency- Moscovici showed that a consistent minority's opinion is more effective than an inconsistent minority.
  • Mundane realism- Moscovici's task had good mundane realism, meaning that it had significance to the participants
  • Research support for internalisation- in a variation of Moscovici's study, participants wrote their answers. Private agreement with the minority was higher, suggesting the participants internalised the beliefs.
  • Good real life application- studies take into account the influence of power and status, as well as the hostility faced by minorities.

Question 60

Question
Name two disadvantages of minority influence
Answer
  • Contradictory research- Moscovici's research suggested inconsistency in a minority was more effective than consistency, contradicting the claim that minority influence needs to be consistent
  • Artificial tasks- Moscovici's research involved participants naming the colour that 36 slides were, which has little real life relevance or significance, meaning it lacks external validity
  • Contradictory research- a variation of Moscovici's study involved participants writing down their answers. Often participants outwardly agreed with the minority, but privately disagreed- they wrote different answers to the minority even if they vocally agreed. This compliance contradicts the theory that minority influence leads to internalisation.
  • Limited application- in the real world, the majority usually has higher status and power, and the minority influence faces hostility. This commitment isn't replicated in studies.

Question 61

Question
Label the bottom table with the correct numbers (reasons for social change) and letters (explanation), as are found in the top table.
Answer
  • B
  • 3
  • C

Question 62

Question
Name an advantage of social change research
Answer
  • Research support for role of NSI in social change- Nolan hung signs on residents' doors which either said that most residents were trying to reduce their energy usage, or just that they should save energy. There was a significant decrease in energy usage of those who received the NSI message compared to those who didn't.
  • Minority influence is directly effective- minority influence often has a very immediate effect and the majority is influenced on the issue itself.
  • Supporting evidence from Asch, Milgram and Moscovici is methodologically correct, with minimal issues

Question 63

Question
Name three disadvantages of social change research
Answer
  • Minority influence is indirectly effective- it is often delayed by years, if not decades, and the majority is only influenced on matters related to the issue, not the issue itself
  • Contradictory evidence- Nolan hung signs up on residents' doors with one of two messages; either that most residents were trying to reduce energy usage, or to save energy. Nolan found residents who received the first message (NSI) didn't reduce their energy usage, while those who received the second message did reduce their usage.
  • Contradictory research- Moscovici suggested majority infleunce led to conformity while minority influence led to internalisation, however Mackie argued that when a majority believes differently to you, you have to think long and hard about their reasoning.
  • Methodological issues- Asch, Milgram and Moscovici's research all included methodological issues which hindered the validity and generalisability