Forensic Science Chapter 3

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Quiz by cheetahgoddess, updated more than 1 year ago
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Created by cheetahgoddess about 7 years ago
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Forensic Science Midterm Chapter 3

Resource summary

Question 1

Question
Evidence with individual characteristics can lead to a determination of common origin (single source). Which type of evidence CANNOT yield such results?
Answer
  • Random striations on tools
  • Fingerprints
  • Wear patterns on tires
  • Single-layer paints

Question 2

Question
The likelihood of finding class physical evidence is ____________ the likelihood of finding physical evidence with individual characteristics.
Answer
  • The same as
  • Less than
  • Greater than

Question 3

Question
Physical evidence is considered to have _______ as that of eyewitness (testimonial) evidence.
Answer
  • The same value
  • Greater value
  • Less value

Question 4

Question
The corroborative use of physical evidence means that it can be used to:
Answer
  • Provide a lead to give the investigation direction
  • Establish a definitive identity
  • Support other investigative findings
  • Rule out a particular suspect

Question 5

Question
Physical evidence can be used to exonerate or exclude a person from suspicion if:
Answer
  • It is collected in accordance with the Fourth Amendment
  • The standard reference sample (control) from the person does not share characteristics with evidence at the crime scene
  • It does not have a well-documented chain of custody
  • Evidence taken from suspect is obtained voluntarily

Question 6

Question
Forensic databases are maintained for all of the following EXCEPT
Answer
  • Fingerprints
  • Dental impressions
  • DNA
  • Automotive paint

Question 7

Question
The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) became fully operational in what year?
Answer
  • 1998
  • 1991
  • 1978
  • 1999

Question 8

Question
A component of the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network is called:
Answer
  • PDQ
  • CODIS
  • IBIS
  • a and b

Question 9

Question
When a forensic analyst determines the chemical composition of preparations that may contain illicit drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or barbiturates, this is an example of:
Answer
  • Individualization
  • Identification
  • Classification
  • Comparison

Question 10

Question
The examination of a paint chip found on a hit-and-run victim’s garment side-by-side with paint removed from a vehicle suspected of being involved in the incident is an example of:
Answer
  • Comparison
  • Identification
  • Classification
  • Individualization

Question 11

Question
Evidence having class characteristics can:
Answer
  • Exonerate an innocent suspect
  • Link a person to a crime with a high degree of certainty
  • Always be fitted together in a the manner of a jigsaw puzzle
  • Have no evidential value

Question 12

Question
If the laboratory can piece broken glass from a window or headlight together, then the evidence has _______ characteristics.
Answer
  • Identification
  • Comparative
  • Individual
  • Class

Question 13

Question
A comparison analysis subjects a suspect specimen and a control specimen to the same tests and examinations for the ultimate purpose of determining
Answer
  • Whether or not they have a common origin
  • If they are identical in chemical composition
  • If the same person handled them
  • If they are alike in molecular structure

Question 14

Question
Determining that an explosive mixture contains dynamite is an example of the process of:
Answer
  • Identification
  • Comparison
  • Class characterizations
  • Individualization

Question 15

Question
The computerized database used to store DNA information is:
Answer
  • AFIS
  • CODIS
  • NIBIN
  • Drugfire

Question 16

Question
To calculate the overall frequency of occurrence of a blood type in a population, the _____ can be applied by using a series of blood factors that occur independently of each other.
Answer
  • Locard's exchange principle
  • Multiplication table
  • Tangent method
  • Product rule

Question 17

Question
The value of class physical evidence lies in its ability to:
Answer
  • State with certainty the identify of the perpetrator
  • Corroborate events with data in a manner nearly without bias
  • Determine the probability of the occurrence of an event
  • Determine the quality of forensic analyses carried out on the evidence

Question 18

Question
Which of the following is a national fingerprint and criminal history system maintained by the FBI and launched in 1999?
Answer
  • NIBIN
  • PDQ
  • IAFIS
  • SICAR

Question 19

Question
Paint chips, random glass fragments, and synthetic fibers all exhibit:
Answer
  • Individual characteristics
  • Class characteristics
  • Identification characteristics
  • Comparison characteristics

Question 20

Question
The database that contains chemical and color information pertaining to original automotive paints is the:
Answer
  • PDQ
  • NIBIN
  • SICAR
  • IAFIS

Question 21

Question
The database that includes more than 300 manufacturers of shoes with more than 8,000 different sole patterns is the:
Answer
  • PDQ
  • SICAR
  • IAFIS
  • CODIS

Question 22

Question
Which source of CODIS contains DNA profiles from unsolved crime scene evidence?
Answer
  • Offender index
  • National index
  • Forensic index
  • DNA index

Question 23

Question
The PDQ is maintained by the:
Answer
  • FBI
  • RCMP
  • ATF
  • National DNA Database

Question 24

Question
The "jigsaw fit" of known and questioned fragments is important for court presentation primarily because:
Answer
  • It is quick way of demonstrating how the object broke
  • Courts and juries are too nonscientific to understand it any other way
  • Instrumental analysis is too complicated to explain to nontechnical juries
  • This method will definitely demonstrate common origin when a match is made

Question 25

Question
Who ultimately determines the significance of physical evidence in a trial?
Answer
  • The judge
  • Expert witness
  • The Supreme Court
  • The jury

Question 26

Question
Multiplying together the frequencies of independently occurring factors is called the:
Answer
  • Multiplication rule
  • Frequency rule
  • Product rule
  • Factor rule

Question 27

Question
A computerized archive of information relating to a specific type of physical evidence is a(n):
Answer
  • Evidence database
  • Information database
  • Comparison database
  • Forensic database
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